Tumors of the Central Nervous System

Chapter

Abstract

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. For example, there are approximately 2,000 brain tumors diagnosed in children each year in the United States. While the incidence of reported pediatric brain tumors has been increasing over the past few decades, this is probably because of improvements in diagnostic capabilities and reporting. Recent advances in diagnostic capabilities, aggressive surgical techniques, and multimodal therapy, including radiation and/or chemotherapy, have led to longer survival and even cure of some classifications of pediatric brain tumors.

Written by a well-known nurse practitioner specializing in pediatric brain tumors, this chapter provides an overview of cancers, treatments, and the latest information on research and clinical trials. A mother provides the touching story of her daughter’s brain tumor diagnosis, which helps to put the clinical picture into clear focus for the neuroscience nurse.

Keywords

Intracranial Pressure Posterior Fossa Germ Cell Tumor Fourth Ventricle Central Nervous System Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbott R, Epstein F, Shiminski-Maher T (1996) Tumors of the medulla: predicting outcome after surgery. Pediatr Neurosurg 25:41–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albright AL, Sposto R, Holmes E, Zeltzer PM, Finlay JL, Wisoff JH et al (2000) Correlation of neurosurgical subspecialization with outcomes in children with malignant brain tumors. Neurosurgery 4:879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albright L, Pollack I, Adelson P (2007) Principals and practice of pediatric neurosurgery. Thieme, New York, pp 477–790Google Scholar
  4. Avellino A, Berger M (1997) Intensive care management of children with brain tumors. In: Andrews B, Hammer G (eds) Pediatric neurosurgical intensive care. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Park Ridge, pp 235–256Google Scholar
  5. Benz M, Benz M (2004) Reduction of cancer risk associated with pediatric computed tomography by the development of new technologies. Pediatrics 114:205–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biagi E, Bollard C, Rousseau R, Brennan M (2003) Gene therapy for pediatric cancer: state of the art and perspectives. J Biomed Biotechnol 1:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Black P, Wen P (1995) Clinical imaging and laboratory diagnosis of brain tumors. In: Kaye A, Laws E Jr (eds) Brain tumors. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 191–214Google Scholar
  8. Cardis E et al (2010) Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case–control study. Int J Epidemiol, 10:1–20Google Scholar
  9. Cataltepe O, Turnanli G, Yalnizoglu D, Topcu M, Akalan N (2005) Surgical management of temporal lobe-related epilepsy in children. J Neurosurg 102(3 suppl):280–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Finlay JL, Wisoff JH (1999) The impact of extent of resection in the management of malignant gliomas of childhood. Childs Nerv Syst 15:786–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Halpern E, Constine L, Tarbell N, Kun L (2010) Pediatric radiation oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Hickey J (2009) The clinical practice of neurological and neurosurgical nursing, 6th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Jallo G, Freed D, Epstein F (2004) Spinal cord gangliogliomas: a review of 56 patients. J Neurooncol 68:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khatua S, Jalali R (2005) Recent advances in the treatment of childhood brain tumors. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 5:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirk E, Howard V, Scott C (1995) Description of posterior fossa syndrome in children after posterior fossa brain tumor surgery. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 12:181–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kirsch D, Tarbell N (2004) New technologies in radiation therapy for pediatric br ain tumors: the rationale for proton radiation therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42:461–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lerner SE, Huang GJ, McMahon D, Sklar CA, Oberfield SE (2005) Growth hormone therapy in children after cranial/craniospinal radiation therapy: sexually dimorphic outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 12:6100–6104Google Scholar
  18. Lieberman D, Berger M (2001) Brain tumors during the first two years of life. In: Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson PD (eds) Operative techniques in pediatric neurosugery. Thieme, New York, pp 125–129Google Scholar
  19. Maher C, Raffel C (2004) Neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 51:327–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mehta V, Chapman A, McNeely PD (2002) Latency between symptom onset and diagnosis of pediatric brain tumors: an Eastern Canadian geographic study. Neurosurgery 51:365–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Moore IM (1995) Central nervous system toxicity of cancer therapy in children. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 12:203–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Muszynski C, Constantini S, Epstein F (2001) Intraspinal intramedullary neoplasms. In: Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson PD (eds) Operative techniques in pediatric neurosugery. Thieme, New York, pp 193–200Google Scholar
  23. National Cancer Institute (2008) Radiation risks and pediatric computed tomography (CT): a guide for health care providers. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/causes/radiation-risks-pediatric-ct. Accessed 12 Dec 2011.
  24. Petriccione MM (1993) Central nervous system tumors. In: Foley G, Fochtman D, Mooney KH (eds) Nursing care of the child with cancer. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 239–253Google Scholar
  25. Robinson LL (2005) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a resource for research of long-term outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Minn Med 4:45–49Google Scholar
  26. Ryan J, Shiminski-Maher T (1995) Hydrocephalus and shunts in children with central nervous system tumors. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 12:223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Shiminski-Maher T (1990a) Brain tumors in childhood: implications for nursing practice. J Pediatr Health Care 4:122–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shiminski-Maher T (1990b) Diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in children with midline suprasellar brain tumors. J Neurosci Nurs 22:220–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shiminski-Maher T (1993) Physician-patient-parent communication complications. Pediatr Neurosurg 19:104–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shiminski-Maher T, Rosenberg M (1990) Late effects associated with treatment of craniopharyngiomas in children. J Neurosci Nurs 22:220–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shiminski-Maher T, Shields M (1995) Pediatric brain tumors: diagnosis and management. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 12:188–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shiminski-Maher T, Wisoff J (1995) Pediatric brain tumors. Crit Care Clin North Am 7:159–169Google Scholar
  33. Shiminski-Maher T, Cullen P, Sansalone M (2002) Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors: a guide for families, friends and caregivers. O’Reilly Associates, SepastopolGoogle Scholar
  34. Sundgren P (2010) Advanced imaging techniques in brain tumors: an issue of neuroimaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am, 4:657–658Google Scholar
  35. Watral M (2009) Central nervous system tumors. In: Kline N (ed) Essentials of pediatric hematology/oncologynursing. Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses. pp 28–32Google Scholar
  36. Yock T, Tarbell N (2002) Technology insight: proton beam radiotherapy for treatment in pediatric brain tumors. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 1:97–103Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeurosurgeryThe Children’s Hospital at MontefioreBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations