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Case 1: Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (Hereafter Also Referred to as Lubanga)

  • Sonja C. Grover
Chapter

Abstract

(1) Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was charged as co-perpetrator under Rome Statute Article 8(2)(b)(xxvi) (“Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law”) with conscripting and enlisting children under the age of 15 years into the FPLC (Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of Congo) and using them to participate actively in hostilities from early September 2002 to 2 June, 2003 and (2) as co-perpetrator under Rome Statute Article 8(2)(e)(vii) (“Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law”) with conscripting and enlisting children under the age of 15 years into the FPLC and using them to participate actively in hostilities from 2 June to 13 August, 2003. As co-perpetrator Lubanga is held to have made, at a minimum, a ‘substantial’ (though not necessarily ‘essential’) contribution to the common plan which involved the commission of the crimes charged (that is, the crimes charged could have occurred without his contribution but not without great difficulty). Note that the Trial Chamber in Lubanga as a result of a legal re-characterization of the facts found that the UPC/FPLC was engaged in an internal conflict from early September 2002 to 13 August, 2003.

Keywords

Armed Conflict Rome Statute International Crime Trial Chamber Armed Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature, Materials and Cases

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Materials

  1. American Society of International Law (ASIL Insights) (2010) The ICC Appeals Chamber judgment on the legal characterization of the facts in Prosecutor v Lubanga (8 January, 2010, Vol. 14(1)). http://www.asil.org/insights100108.cfm. Accessed 4 Jun 2012
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Cases

  1. Prosecutor v Samuel Hinga Norman Dissenting Opinion of Justice Robertson in (31 May, 2004) (SCSL-04-14-AR72(E)) http://www.sc-sl.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=z1qWROwTItg%3D&tabid=193. Accessed 23 Mar 2012
  2. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Amicus brief of Coomaraswamy, R. (United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict) (2008) http://www.un.org/children/conflict/_documents/AmicuscuriaeICCLubanga.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2012
  3. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Appeal Court judgment, 8 December, 2009 decision on the ICC Trial Chamber I July, 2009 decision regarding legal re-characterization of the facts http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc790147.pdf. Accessed 23 Jan 2012
  4. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (Trial Chamber I) Clarification and further guidance to parties and participants in relation to the “Decision giving notice to the parties and participants that the legal characterisation of the facts may be subject to change in accordance with Regulation 55(2) of the Regulations of the Court” (27 August, 2009, pp. 6–7, para 8) http://www.iclklamberg.com/Caselaw/DRC/Dyilo/TCI/2093.pdf. Accessed 6 Jun 2012
  5. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Decision on Confirmation of Charges (29 January, 2007) http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc266175.PDF. Accessed 14 Jan 2012
  6. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Decision on Sentence Pursuant to Article 76 of the Statute (10 July, 2012) http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1438370.pdf. Accessed 13 Oct 2012
  7. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Defense Closing Brief of 15 July, 2011 http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1325997.pdf. Accessed 29 Jan 2012
  8. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Defense Closing Statement of 26 August, 2011 http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1211991.pdf. Accessed 29 Jan 2012
  9. Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Odio Benito Final Trial Judgement Pursuant to Article 74 of the Rome Statute (14 March, 2012) http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1379838.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2012
  10. Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Final Trial Judgement Pursuant to Article 74 of the Rome Statute (14 March, 2012) http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1379838.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2012
  11. Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Joint Application of the Legal Representatives of the Victims for the Implementation of the Procedure under Regulation 55 of the Regulations of the Court, 22 May, 2009 http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc712021.pdf. Accessed 21 Mar 2012
  12. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Legal Representatives of Victims Closing Statements (25 August, 2011) http://212.159.242.181/iccdocs/doc/doc1210316.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2012
  13. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Office of Public Counsel for Victims Closing Statement (25 August, 2011) http://212.159.242.181/iccdocs/doc/doc1210316.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2012
  14. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Prosecution Closing Brief (1 June, 2011) http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/doc1123809.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2012
  15. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Prosecution Closing Statements (25 August, 2011) http://212.159.242.181/iccdocs/doc/doc1210316.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2012
  16. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Prosecution’s Reply to the Conclusions finales de la Défense, 1 August, 2011. http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/exeres/7A274DFF-7D95-424F-95B8-9EADF0CC6DA1.htm. Accessed 3 Feb 2012
  17. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo Summary of the “Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute (14 March, 2012) http://micro5.mscc.huji.ac.il/~gharpaz/admins/uploads/lubanga_judgment_summary.pdf. Accessed 3 Jun 2012
  18. Special Court of Sierra Leone (SCSL) Prosecutor versus Samuel Hinga Norman, Appeals Chamber, Fourth Defence Preliminary Motion Based on Lack of Jurisdiction (Child Recruitment) Amicus Curiae Brief of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (21 January, 2004) http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/49aba9462.html. Accessed 23 Mar 2012

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

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