Reconsidering the Legal Concepts of Genocide and the ‘Genocidal Forcible Transfer of Children’

  • Sonja C. Grover


The purpose of this book is to explore through selected case examples from ICC jurisprudence how the ICC has dealt with the matter of: (a) the special targeting and particularly heinous treatment accorded children as victims of mass atrocity and with (b) the international law implications of this special targeting and selective treatment.


Armed Conflict International Criminal Court Protected Group Rome Statute International Crime 
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Literature, Materials and Situations/Cases


  1. Crema L (2010) Disappearance and new sightings of restrictive interpretations. Eur J Int Law 21(3):681–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Eastwood M (2011) Lessons in hatred: the indoctrination and education of Germany’s youth. Int J Hum Rights 15(8):1291–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Forster TK (2011) The Khmer Rouge and the crime of genocide: issues of genocidal intent with regard to the Khmer Rouge mass atrocities. Accessed 18 Jun 2012
  4. Goldhagen DJ (2009) Worse than war: genocide, eliminationism, and the ongoing assault on humanity. Public Affairs/Perseus Book Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Grover L (2010) A call to arms: fundamental dilemmas confronting the interpretation of crimes in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court European. J Int Law 21(3):543–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grover S (2012) Child soldier victims of genocidal forcible transfer: exonerating child soldiers charged with grave conflict-related international crimes. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. Grover S (2011a) The Lebensborn children of Norway (children born of Nazi fathers during WWII) and the silencing of their voices by an international human rights court: an analysis of the 2007 European Court of Human Rights decision in Werner Hermann Thiermann and others v. Norway. Int J Interdiscipl Soc Sci 5(8):25–36Google Scholar
  8. Grover S (2011b) Schoolchildren as propaganda tools in the war on terror: violating the rights of Afghani children under international law. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mundorff K (2007) Taking 2(e) seriously: forcible child transfers and the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Master of Laws Thesis, University of British Columbia. Accessed 19 May 2012
  10. Sadat LN (ed) (2011) Forging a convention for crimes against humanity. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
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  12. Schabas WA (2000) Genocide in international law. University of Cambridge Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Sobsey R (2007) Implementing the rights of children with disabilities. In: Covell K, Howe RB (eds) Children’s rights in Canada: a question of commitment. Wilfred Laurier Press, Waterloo, pp 373–394Google Scholar
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  1. Cimpric A (2010) Children accused of witchcraft: an anthropological study of contemporary practices in Africa (A report prepared for UNICEF). Accessed 13 May 2012
  2. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (1990) Entered into force 2 September 1990. Accessed 27 Oct 2011
  3. Geneva Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Times of War, 12 August, 1949. Accessed 16 May 2012
  4. Genocide Convention (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide). Entry into force 1951. Accessed 3 Feb 2012
  5. Nuremberg Charter (1945) Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis, and Charter of the International Military Tribunal. London, 8 August 1945. Accessed 7 May 2012
  6. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (2002) Entered into force 12 February, 2002. Accessed 26 Feb 2012
  7. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2002) Entered into force 18 January, 2002. Accessed 26 Feb 2012
  8. Protocol Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions relating to the Protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol I) (8 June, 1977) Accessed 18 Jan 2012
  9. Protocol Additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions Relating to the Protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts (Protocol II) (8 June, 1977) Accessed 18 Jan 2012
  10. Rome Statute (2002) Entered into force 7 January, 2002 Accessed 17 Jan 2011
  11. Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict (2005) Accessed 8 May 2012
  12. UN Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (2005). Accessed 25 Feb 2012
  13. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948 Accessed 16 Apr 2012
  14. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) Entered into force on 27 January 1980. Accessed 16 Apr 2012

Situations and Cases

  1. International Military Tribunal Trial of the Major War Criminals, Vol. 19 (29 July, 1946, p. 616) Accessed 8 May 2012
  2. Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Second Warrant for Arrest for Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir (Pre-Trial Chamber I, 12 July, 2010) Accessed 14 May 2012
  3. Prosecutor v Joseph Kony. Warrant for Arrest for Joseph Kony Issued on 8 July, 2005 as amended on 27 September, 2005 Accessed 1 Mar 2012

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

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