Certifying Execution Time

  • Vítor Rodrigues
  • João Pedro Pedroso
  • Mário Florido
  • Simão Melo de Sousa
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7177)


In this paper we present the framework Abstraction-Carrying CodE Platform for Timing validation (ACCEPT), designed for timing analysis of embedded real-time systems using the worst-case execution time (WCET) as the safety parameter. In the context of real-time embedded code safety, we describe in detail the component responsible for generating and checking the WCET certificates. In particular, the checking mechanism is efficiently designed so that code consumers can autonomously verify that the received code meet theirs internal real-time requirements. The certificate generation/checking mechanism is inspired in the Abstraction-Carrying Code framework and implemented using Abstract Interpretation and Linear Programming.


Abstract Interpretation Abstract Domain Program Point Galois Connection Abstract Context 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Albert, E., Arenas, P., Puebla, G., Hermenegildo, M.V.: Certificate size reduction in abstraction-carrying code. CoRR, abs/1010.4533 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albert, E., Puebla, G., Hermenegildo, M.: An abstract interpretation-based approach to mobile code safety. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 132(1), 113–129 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barthe, G., Beringer, L., Crégut, P., Grégoire, B., Hofmann, M.O., Müller, P., Poll, E., Puebla, G., Stark, I., Vétillard, E.: MOBIUS: Mobility, Ubiquity, Security. In: Montanari, U., Sannella, D., Bruni, R. (eds.) TGC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4661, pp. 10–29. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Besson, F., Cachera, D., Jensen, T., Pichardie, D.: Certified Static Analysis by Abstract Interpretation. In: Aldini, A., Barthe, G., Gorrieri, R. (eds.) FOSAD 2007/2008/2009. LNCS, vol. 5705, pp. 223–257. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bourdoncle, F.: Efficient Chaotic Iteration Strategies with Widenings. In: Pottosin, I.V., Bjorner, D., Broy, M. (eds.) FMP&TA 1993. LNCS, vol. 735, pp. 128–141. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cachera, D., Pichardie, D.: A Certified Denotational Abstract Interpreter. In: Kaufmann, M., Paulson, L.C. (eds.) ITP 2010. LNCS, vol. 6172, pp. 9–24. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cousot, P.: Constructive design of a hierarchy of semantics of a transition system by abstract interpretation. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 6 (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cousot, P.: The calculational design of a generic abstract interpreter. In: Broy, M., Steinbrüggen, R. (eds.) Calculational System Design. NATO ASI Series F. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cousot, P., Cousot, R.: Abstract interpretation frameworks. Journal of Logic and Computation 2, 511–547 (1992)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferdinand, C., Heckmann, R., Langenbach, M., Martin, F., Schmidt, M., Theiling, H., Thesing, S., Wilhelm, R.: Reliable and Precise WCET Determination for a Real-Life Processor. In: Henzinger, T.A., Kirsch, C.M. (eds.) EMSOFT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2211, pp. 469–485. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hammond, K., Ferdinand, C., Heckmann, R., Dyckhoff, R., Hofmann, M., Jost, S., Loidl, H.-W., Michaelson, G., Pointon, R.F., Scaife, N., Sérot, J., Wallace, A.: Towards formally verifiable wcet analysis for a functional programming language. In: WCET (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hillier, F.S., Lieberman, G.J.: Introduction to operations research, 4th edn. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco (1986)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McConnell, R.M., Mehlhorn, K., Näher, S., Schweitzer, P.: Certifying algorithms. Computer Science Review 5(2), 119–161 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morrisett, G., Walker, D., Crary, K., Glew, N.: From system f to typed assembly language. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 21, 527–568 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Necula, G.C.: Proof-carrying code. In: Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, POPL 1997, pp. 106–119. ACM, New York (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nielson, H.R., Nielson, F.: Pragmatic Aspects of Two-Level Denotational Meta-Languages. In: Robinet, B., Wilhelm, R. (eds.) ESOP 1986. LNCS, vol. 213, pp. 133–143. Springer, Heidelberg (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patankar, V., Jain, A., Bryant, R.: Formal verification of an arm processor. In: 12th International Conference on VLSI Design, pp. 282–287 (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rodrigues, V., Florido, M., de Sousa, S.M.: Back annotation in action: from wcet analysis to source code verification. In: Actas of CoRTA 2011: Compilers, Prog. Languages, Related Technologies and Applications (July 2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rodrigues, V., Florido, M., de Sousa, S.M.: A functional approach to worst-case execution time analysis. In: 20th International Workshop on Functional and (Constraint) Logic Programming (WFLP), pp. 86–103. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rodrigues, V., Florido, M., de Sousa, S.M.: Towards adaptive real-time systems by worst-case execution time checking. Technical report, Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Laboratory (LIACC)- University of Porto (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sharir, M., Pnueli, A.: Two Approaches to Interprocedural Data Flow Analysis, pp. 189–233. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs (1981)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    The DWARF Debugging Standard,
  23. 23.
    Wilhelm, R.: Why AI + ILP Is Good for WCET, but MC Is Not, Nor ILP Alone. In: Steffen, B., Levi, G. (eds.) VMCAI 2004. LNCS, vol. 2937, pp. 309–322. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vítor Rodrigues
    • 2
    • 3
  • João Pedro Pedroso
    • 2
  • Mário Florido
    • 2
    • 3
  • Simão Melo de Sousa
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.RELiablE And SEcure Computation GroupUniversidade da Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal
  2. 2.DCC-Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade do PortoPortugal
  3. 3.LIACCUniversidade do PortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations