Skip to main content

Theorizing the European Union’s Global Authority: An Alternative Trichotomy

  • 1148 Accesses

Part of the Global Power Shift book series (GLOBAL)

Abstract

This chapter is a theoretical attempt to study the multifaceted authority of the European Union (EU) in world politics. Authority is legitimated power. Without legitimacy, power often faces severe resistance whereas legitimate actions and actorness imply less opposition if not widespread support. Informed by the thesis of Steven Lukes on three-dimensional power and Mark Suchman’s trichotomy of legitimacy, this chapter advances three dimensions of the EU’s authority in the world and discusses how the EU could maintain and/or restore its legitimacy in the global arena.

Keywords

  • European Union
  • Candidate Country
  • Moral Legitimacy
  • European Union Membership
  • Democracy Promotion

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Buhari Gulmez, Didem. Ph.D. in Politics and International Relations/University of London; MSc by Research in Politics/University of Edinburgh; DES in International Relations/Paris Institute of Strategic and International Relations (IRIS SUP). Her research interests include international legitimacy, European Union, World Polity, and systemic theories in international relations. She has published in the Journal of Contemporary European Studies, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, and International Political Sociology amongst others.

Gulmez, Seckin Baris. Ph.D. candidate in Politics and International Relations/University of London; MSc in Politics and International Relations/University of London; MSc in International Relations/Middle East Technical University; Post Graduate Certificate in Contemporary European Studies at University of Birmingham. He studies eurocepticism in political parties of accession countries with a particular focus on Turkey. His publications appeared in several journals including Turkish Studies and Acta Politica.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32412-3_7
  • Chapter length: 16 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-32412-3
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Bachrach, P., & Baratz, M. S. (1962). Two faces of power. The American Political Science Review, 56(4), 947–952.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Batory, A. (2008). Euroscepticism in the Hungarian party system: Voices from the wilderness? In A. Szczerbiak & P. Taggart (Eds.), Opposing Europe? The comparative party politics of Euroscepticism (pp. 263–276). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boli, J., & Thomas, G. (1999). Constructing world culture: International non-governmental organizations Since 1875. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buhari-Gulmez, D. (2012). Europeanization of foreign policy and world culture: Turkey’s Cyprus policy. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 12(1), 81–95.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cavatorta, F. (2009). Divided they stand, divided they fail: Opposition politics in Morocco. Democratization, 16(1), 137–156.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, I. (2005). Legitimacy in international society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Claude, I., Jr. (1966). Collective legitimization as a political function of the United Nations. International Organization, 20(1), 367–79.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coen, D., & Dannreuther, C. (2003). Differentiated Europeanization: Large and small firms in the EU policy process. In K. Featherstone & C. M. Radaelli (Eds.), The politics of Europeanization (pp. 255–279). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dahl, R. A. (1961). Who governs? Democracy and power in an American City. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Castro, R. B. (2010). The European Union, Turkey and democratic secularism: tentative reflections on an emerging condition. Working Paper. Middle East Technical University Centre for European Studies. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://www.ces.metu.edu.tr/docs/ceswp1.pdf

  • Diez, T., Agnantopoulos, A., & Kaliber, A. (2005). File: Turkey, Europeanization and civil society: Introduction. South European Society and Politics, 10(1), 1–15.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • EuroBulletin Bulgaria (2001). Interview with Velislav Velichkov: The rules valid for the European Union, should be valid for Bulgaria too. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://eubulletin.mfa.government.bg/Highlights.asp

  • European Commission. (2004). Recommendation of the European Commission on Turkey’s progress towards accession. Brussels. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2004:0656:FIN:EN:PDF

  • European Commission. (2005, October 3). Negotiating framework. Luxembourg. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/turkey/st20002_05_tr_framedoc_en.pdf

  • Follesdall, A., & Hix, S. (2006). Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU: A response to Majone and Moravcsik. Journal of Common Market Studies, 44(3), 533–562.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, A. (1993). Non-governmental organizations as agents of democratization: An African perspective. Journal of International Development, 5(3), 325–339.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Franck, T. M. (1990). Power of legitimacy among nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giuliani, M. (2001). Europeanization and Italy: A bottom-up process? In K. Featherstone & G. Kazamias (Eds.), Europeanization and the southern periphery (pp. 47–73). London: Frank Cass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gokalp, D., & Unsar, S. (2008). From the myth of European Union accession to disillusion: Implications for religious and ethnic politicization in Turkey. Middle East Journal, 62(1), 93–116.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grabbe, H. (2003). Europeanization goes East: Power and uncertainty in the EU accession process. In K. Featherstone & C. M. Radaelli (Eds.), The politics of Europeanization (pp. 303–331). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gulmez, S. B. (2008). The EU policy of the republican people’s party: An inquiry on the opposition party and Euro-Skepticism in Turkey. Turkish Studies, 9(3), 423–436.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gulmez, S.B. (2010). Decoding the foreign policy orientations of the CHP deputies. Opinion paper. Changing Turkey in a changing world. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://changingturkey.com/2010/01/13/decoding-the-foreign-policy-orientations-of-the-chp-deputies/

  • Gulmez, S. B., & Buhari-Gulmez, D. (2008). The EU conditionality in the Cyprus problem: Catalyzing Euro-Skepticism in Turkey? Journal of Cyprus Studies, 14(1), 1–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, R. B., & Biersteker, T. (Eds.). (2002). The emergence of private authority in global governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanley, S. (2008). Embracing Europe, opposing EU-rope? Party-based Euroscepticism in the Czech Republic. In A. Szczerbiak & P. Taggart (Eds.), Opposing Europe? The comparative party politics of Euroscepticism (pp. 243–62). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harcourt, A. J. (2003). Europeanization as convergence: The regulation of media markets in the European Union. In K. Featherstone & C. M. Radaelli (Eds.), The politics of Europeanization (pp. 179–203). Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hill, C. (2004). Renationalizing or regrouping? EU foreign policy since 11 September 2001. Journal of Common Market Studies, 42(1), 143–63.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2008). A postfunctionalist theory of European integration: From permissive consensus to constraining dissensus. British Journal of Political Science, 39(1), 1–23.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hurriyet. (2004). TESEV accused of discouraging military service. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://webarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/2004/06/07/471266.asp

  • Kagan, R. (2003). Of paradise and power: America and Europe in the new world order. Washington, DC: Knopf Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirisci, K. (2006). Turkey’s foreign policy in turbulent times. Chaillot Paper 92. European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS). Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/cp092.pdf

  • Kissinger, H. A. (1977). American foreign policy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laffan, B. (2004). The European Union and its institutions as identity builders. In R. K. Herrmann, T. Risse-Kappen, & M. B. Brewer (Eds.), Transnational identities: Becoming European in the EU (pp. 75–94). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lukes, S. (1974). Power: A radical view. London: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manners, I. (2002). Normative power Europe: A contradiction in terms? Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(2), 235–258.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marcussen, M., Risse, T., Engelmann-Martin, D., Knopf, H. J., & Roscher, K. (1999). Constructing Europe? The evolution of French, British and German nation state identities. Journal of European Public Policy, 6(4), 614–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marusic, S.J. (2011). Macedonia leader renews attacks on EU critics. Balkan insight. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/macedonian-pm-renews-criticism-of-brussels

  • Mayer, H. (2008). Is it still called Chinese whispers? The EU’s rhetoric and action as a responsible global institution. International Affairs, 84(1), 61–79.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mikkel, E., & Kasekamp, A. (2008). Emerging party-based euroscepticism in Estonia. In A. Szczerbiak & P. Taggart (Eds.), Opposing Europe? The comparative party politics of Euroscepticism (pp. 295–313). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pace, R. (2011). Malta: Euroscepticism in a polarised polity. South European Society and Politics, 16(01), 133–157.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pace, M., Seeberg, P., & Cavatorta, F. (2009). The EU’s democratization agenda in the Mediterranean: A critical inside-out approach. Democratization, 16(1), 3–19.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Panebianco, S. (2006). The constraints on EU action as a ‘norm exporter’ in the Mediterranean. In O. Elgström & M. Smith (Eds.), The EU’s roles in international politics (pp. 136–153). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radikal. (2012). Kılıçdaroğlu: Siyasi hayatımı feda etmeye hazırım [Kılıçdaroğlu: I am ready to sacrifice my political career]. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://www.radikal.com.tr/Radikal.aspx?aType=RadikalDetayV3&ArticleID=1081204&CategoryID=78

  • Reus-Smit, C. (2007). International crises of legitimacy. International Politics, 44(1), 157–174.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Riishøj, S. (2007). Europeanization and Euroscepticism: Experiences from Poland and the Czech Republic. Nationalities Papers, 35(3), 502–535.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schimmelfennig, F. (2008). EU political accession conditionality after the 2004 enlargement: Consistency and effectiveness. Journal of European Public Policy, 15(6), 918–937.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scott, W. R. (1991). Unpacking institutional arguments. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 164–182). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sjursen, H. (2006). Values or rights? Alternative conceptions of the EU’s normative’ role. In O. Elgström & M. Smith (Eds.), The EU’s roles in international politics (pp. 85–100). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sofos, S. A. (2001). Reluctant Europeans? European integration and the transformation of Turkish politics. In K. Featherstone & G. Kazamias (Eds.), Europeanization and the southern periphery (pp. 243–261). London, UK: Frank Cass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.

    Google Scholar 

  • Szczerbiak, A. (2008). Opposing Europe or problematizing Europe? Euroscepticism and Eurorealism in the polish party system. In A. Szczerbiak & P. Taggart (Eds.), Opposing Europe? The comparative party politics of Euroscepticism (pp. 221–242). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tesser, L. M. (2004). East-Central Europe’s new security concern: Foreign land ownership. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 37(1), 213–239.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zorić, K. (2008). ZERP ili EU—recept za širenje euroskepticizma [ZERP or the EU—a recipe for the spread of euro-skepticism]. Nacional. Accessed July 1, 2012, from http://www.nacional.hr/clanak/43248/zerp-ili-eu-recept-za-sirenje-euroskepticizma

  • Zuba, K. (2009). Through the looking glass: The attitudes of polish political parties towards the EU before and after accession. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 10(3), 326–349.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zucker, L. G. (1983). Organizations as institutions. In S. B. Bacharach (Ed.), Research in the sociology of organizations (pp. 1–42). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zucker, L. G. (1991). The role of institutionalization in cultural persistence. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 83–107). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Didem Buhari Gulmez .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Gulmez, D.B., Gulmez, S.B. (2013). Theorizing the European Union’s Global Authority: An Alternative Trichotomy. In: Boening, A., Kremer, JF., van Loon, A. (eds) Global Power Europe - Vol. 1. Global Power Shift. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32412-3_7

Download citation