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Non-invasive Measurement of Blood Components

Sensors for an In-Vivo Haemoglobin Measurement
  • J. Kraitl
  • D. Klinger
  • D. Fricke
  • U. Timm
  • H. Ewald
Part of the Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation book series (SSMI, volume 1)

Abstract

This paper reports about fundamentals, simulations and measurements of optical absorption characteristics of whole blood and human tissues. A sensor system to measure blood components as haemoglobin is presented and corresponding results of in-vitro and in-vivo measurements. As basic technology NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used for these non-invasive optical measurements. The characteristic absorption coefficient of blood in the visible and NIR region is well known and is mainly influenced by the different haemoglobin derivates. This fact is used to calculate the optical absorbability characteristics of blood which is yielding information about blood components as arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), haemoglobin (Hb), carboxy-haemoglobin (CoHb) and met-haemoglobin. The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a calculation of these parameters. Haemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells. The primary function of Haemoglobin is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. The Haemoglobin concentration in human blood is an important parameter in evaluating the physiological status of an individual and an essential parameter in every blood count. In currently standards, invasive methods are used to measure the Haemoglobin concentration, whereby blood is taken from the patient and subsequently analysed. Apart from the discomfort of drawing blood samples, an added disadvantage of this method is the delay between the blood collection and its analysis, which does not allow real time patient monitoring in critical situations. A non-invasive method allows pain free continuous on-line patient monitoring with minimum risk of infection and facilitates real time data monitoring allowing immediate clinical reaction to the measured data. The newly developed optical sensor systems uses up to five wavelengths in the range of 600 nm to 1400 nm for a measurement of the haemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation and pulse. This non-invasive multi-spectral measurement method was tested with prototype-devices based on radiation of monochromatic light emitted by laser diodes and by using light emitting diodes (LED) through an area of skin on the finger. The sensors assembled in this investigation are fully integrated into wearable finger clips.

Keywords

Light Emit Diode Haemoglobin Concentration Blood Component Noninvasive Measurement Free Path Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Kraitl
    • 1
  • D. Klinger
    • 1
  • D. Fricke
    • 1
  • U. Timm
    • 1
  • H. Ewald
    • 1
  1. 1.University of RostockRostockGermany

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