Advertisement

Interlocking Firm Networks and Emerging Mega-City Regions in the Knowledge Economy

  • Alain ThiersteinEmail author
  • Stefan LüthiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)

Abstract

The main objective of this contribution lies in the exploration of a new metropolitan form in the context of the knowledge economy: polycentric Mega-City Regions. In the first part, we focus on the theoretical building blocks of Mega-City Regions by considering these polycentric urban structures as an emerging spatial phenomenon based on re-scaling processes of agglomeration economies as well as network economies. By using the two inter-related concepts, we secondly analyse large-scale interlocking networks and functional urban hierarchies in nine Mega-City Regions in North West Europe: Munich, Northern Switzerland, the Dutch Randstad Region, South East England, Rhine-Ruhr, Rhine-Main, the Paris Region, Central Belgium and Greater Dublin. The main conclusion of the paper is that polycentric Mega-City Regions are becoming a more general phenomenon in advanced economies. The inter-urban functional linkages are found to be extending and intensifying while, at the same time, global functions are clustering and centralising. These apparently contradictory processes are intersecting on the Mega-City Region scale, which emerges as a new strategic location for activities of the knowledge economy.

Keywords

Mega-city region Knowledge economy Interlocking firm networks Advanced producer services firms Agglomeration economies North Western Europe 

References

  1. Asheim B, Isaksen A (1997) Location, agglomeration and innovation: towards regional innovation systems in Norway? Eur Plann Stud 5(3):299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becattini G (1989) Sectors and/or districts: some remarks on the conceptual foundations of industrial economics. In: Goodman E, Bamford J (eds) Small firms and industrial districts in Italy. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Blotevogel HH (2000) Gibt es in Deutschland Metropolen? In: Matejovski D (ed) Metropolen: Laboratorien der Moderne. Campus, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  4. Boschma R (2005) Proximity and innovation: a critical assessment. Reg Stud 39(1):61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boschma R, Iammarino S (2009) Related variety, trade linkages, and regional growth in Italy. Econ Geogr 85(3):289–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bramanti A, Maggioni MA (eds) (1997) The dynamics of milieux: the network analysis approach. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  7. Cabus P, Vanhaverbeke W (2006) The territoriality of the network economy and urban networks: evidence from Flanders. Entrep Reg Dev 18:25–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrincazeaux C, Lung Y, Vicente J (2008) The scientific trajectory of the French school of proximity: interaction- and institution-based approaches to regional innovation systems. Eur Plann Stud 16(5):617–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castells M (1989) The informational city information technology, economic restructuring, urban-regional process. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Castells M (2000) The rise of the network society. The information age: economy, society and culture. Blackwell, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  11. Coe N, Hess M, Yeung H, Dicken P, Henderson J (2004) ‘Globalising’ regional development: a global production networks perspective. Trans Inst Br Geogr 29(4):468–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coe N, Dicken P, Hess M (2008) Introduction: global production networks—debates and challenges. J Econ Geogr 8:267–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooke P, Uranga MG, Etxebarria G (1998) Regional systems of innovation: an evolutionary perspective. Environ Plann A 30:1563–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edquist C (1997) Systems of innovation approaches – their emergence and characteristics. In: Edquist C (ed) Systems of innovation: technologies, institutions and organisations. Pinter, London/WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  15. Edquist C, Johnson B (eds) (1997) Institutions and organisations in systems of innovation. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  16. ESPON (2004) ESPON Project 1.1.1. Potentials for polycentric development in Europe. Project report. European spatial planning observation network ESPON, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedmann J (1986) The world city hypothesis. Dev Change 17:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gereffi G, Humphrey J, Sturgeon T (2005) The governance of global value chains. Rev Int Polit Econ 12(1):78–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gottmann J (1961) Megalopolis. The urbanized northeastern seaboard of the United States. Twentieth Century Fund, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Grabher G (1991) The embedded firm: the socio-economics of industrial networks. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Grote MH (2004) Die Entwicklung des Finanzplatzes Frankfurt. Duncker & Humblot, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Halbert L (2004) The intrametropolitan decentralisation of business services in the Paris region: patterns, interpretation, consequences. Econ Geogr 80:381–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halbert L (2008) Examining the mega-city-region hypothesis: evidence from the Paris city-region/Bassin parisien. Reg Stud 42(8):1147–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall P (1966) The world cities. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Hall P (1999) Planning for the mega-city: a new eastern Asian urban form? In: Brotchie JF (ed) East west perspectives on 21st century urban development: sustainable eastern and western cities in the new millennium. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall P (2007) Delineating urban territories. Is this a relevant issue? In: Cattan N (ed) Cities and networks in Europe. A critical approach of polycentrism. John Libbey Eurotext, ParisGoogle Scholar
  27. Hall P, Pain K (2006) The polycentric metropolis. Learning from mega-city regions in Europe. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Henderson J, Dicken P, Hess M, Coe N, Yeung W (2002) Global production networks and the analysis of economic development. Rev Int Polit Econ 9(3):436–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoover EM (1937) Location theory and the shoe and leather industries. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoover EM (1948) The location of economic activity. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoyler M, Freytag T, Mager C (2008a) Connecting rhine-main: the production of multi-scalar polycentricities through knowledge-intensive business services. Reg Stud 42(8):1095–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoyler M, Kloosterman RC, Sokol M (2008b) Polycentric puzzles – emerging mega-city regions seen through the lens of advanced producer services. Reg Stud 42(8):1055–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kloosterman RC, Musterd S (2001) The polycentric urban region: towards a research agenda. Urban Stud 38(4):623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Knapp W, Schmitt P (2008) Discourse on ‘metropolitan driving forces’ and ‘uneven development’: Germany and the Rhine-Rruhr conurbation. Reg Stud 42(8):1187–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kogut B (1985) Designing global strategies: comparative and competitive value-added chains. Sloan Manage Rev 26(4):15–28Google Scholar
  36. Lambregts B (2008) Geographies of knowledge formation in mega-city regions: some evidence from the Dutch Randstad. Reg Stud 42(8):1173–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lundvall BÅ (ed) (1988) Innovation as an interactive process: from user-producer interaction to the national system of innovation. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  38. Lundvall BÅ (ed) (1992) Introduction in: national systems of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  39. Lüthi S, Thierstein A, Goebel V (2008) Intra-firm and extra-firm linkages of the knowledge economy – the case of the mega-city region of Munich. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers (AAG), BostonGoogle Scholar
  40. Maillat D, Quévit M, Senn L (1993) Réseaux d’innovation et milieux innovateurs: Un pari pour le développement régional. EDES, NeuchâtelGoogle Scholar
  41. Marshall A (1920) Principles of economics, chapter 10 – industrial organisation, continued. The concentration of specialised industries in particular localities. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Massey D (1985) Spatial divisions of labour. Social structures and the geography of production (reprint). MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Morgan K (1997) The learning region: institutions innovation and regional renewal. Reg Stud 31(5):491–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moulaert F, Sekia F (2003) Territorial innovation models: a critical survey. Reg Stud 37(3):289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Muscio A (2006) From regional innovation systems to local innovation systems: evidence from Italian industrial districts. Eur Plann Stud 14(6):773–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nelson R (1993) National innovation systems. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Nelson R, Winter S (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge/LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Pain K (2008) Examining ‘core-periphery’ relationships in a global city-region: the case of London and South East England. Reg Stud 42(8):1161–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pike A (2007) Editorial: whither regional studies? Reg Stud 41(9):1143–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piore MJ, Sable CF (1984) The second industrial divide: possibilities for prosperity. Basic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Sassen S (2001) The global city: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  52. Schamp EW (2001) Der Aufstieg von Frankfurt/Rhein-Main zur europäischen Metropolregion. Geogr Helv 56(3):169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schumpeter JA (1926) Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, 2nd edn. Duncker & Humblot, München/LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  54. Scott AJ (1985) Location processes, urbanisation and territorial development: an exploratory essay. Environ Plann A 17:479–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scott AJ (2001) Global city-regions: trends, theory, policy. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Simmie J (2003) Innovation and urban regions as national and international nodes for the transfer and sharing of knowledge. Reg Stud 37(6):607–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Simmie J (2005) Innovation and space: a critical review of the literature. Reg Stud 39(6):789–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sokol M, van Egeraat C, Williams B (2008) Revisiting the ‘informational city’: space of flows polycentricity and the geography of knowledge-intensive business services in the emerging global city-region of Dublin. Reg Stud 42(8):1133–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Storper M (1995) The resurgence of regional economies ten years later: the region as a nexus of untraded interdependencies. Eur Urban Reg Stud 2:119–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Storper M, Walker R (1988) The geographical foundations and social regulations of flexible production complexes, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. Taylor PJ (2004) World city network: a global urban analysis. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Taylor PJ, Evans DM, Pain K (2008) Application of the interlocking network model to mega-city-regions: measuring polycentricity within and beyond city-regions. Reg Stud 42(8):1079–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thierstein A, Kruse C, Glanzmann L, Gabi S, Grillon N (2006) Raumentwicklung im Verborgenen Untersuchungen und Handlungsfelder für die Entwicklung der Metropolregion Nordschweiz. NZZ Buchverlag, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  64. Thierstein A, Goebel V, Lüthi S (2007) Standortverflechtungen der Metropolregion München. Über Konnektivität in der Wissensökonomie. Lehrstuhl für Raumentwicklung, TU München, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  65. Thierstein A, Lüthi S, Kruse C, Gabi S, Glanzmann L (2008) Changing value chain of the knowledge economy. Spatial impact of intra-firm and inter-firm networks within the emerging mega-city region of Northern Switzerland. Reg Stud 42(8):1113–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Torre A, Rallet A (2005) Proximity and localization. Reg Stud 39(1):47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vandermotten C, Roelandts M, Aujean L, Castiau E (2006a) Central Belgium: polycentrism in a federal context. In: Hall P, Pain K (eds) The polycentric metropolis learning from mega-city regions in Europe. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Vandermotten C, Roelandts M, Aujean L, Castiau E (2006b) Globalisation and social dualisation, under an institutional constraint: the Brussels-capital case. Built Environ 32(2):148–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wildemann H (2003) Supply Chain Management Effizienzsteigerung in der unternehmensübergreifenden Wertschöpfungskette. TCW Transfer-Centrum, MünchenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Territorial and Spatial DevelopmentMunich University of TechnologyMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations