Electron Mirrors

  • Harald Rose
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 142)


A novel treatment of the optics of electron mirrors is presented utilizing the position ζ of the axial reference electron as the independent variable. This procedure enables one to determine the path of electrons with large ray gradients encountered in electron mirrors in the vicinity of turning points. The aberrations of electron mirrors are derived by a perturbation procedure which considers the lateral coordinates x=x(ζ), y=y(ζ) and the axial distance z(ζ)−ζ of the electron as small quantities. In particular it is shown that a specially designed electrostatic tetrode mirror provides negative chromatic and spherical aberrations, which can be adjusted in such a way to compensate for the corresponding positive aberrations of round lenses, as realized in the SMART microscope operating either as a low-voltage electron microscope or as a photoemission electron microscope.


Spherical Aberration Chromatic Aberration Path Equation Reference Electron Aberration Coefficient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 136.
    R. Fink, M.R. Weiss, E. Umbach, D. Preikszas, H. Rose, R. Spehr, P. Hartel, W. Engel, R. Degenhardt, R. Wichtendahl, H. Kuhlenbeck, W. Erlebach, K. Ihrmann, R. Schloegel, H.J. Freund, A.M. Bradshaw, G. Lilienkamp, T. Schmidt, E. Bauer, G. Benner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 231 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 158.
    A. Recknagel, Z. Phys. 104, 381 (1936)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 159.
    E.G. Ramberg, J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183 (1949)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 160.
    G.F. Rempfer, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6027 (1990)Google Scholar
  5. 162.
    W. Wan, J. Feng, H.A. Padmore, D. Robin, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 519, 222 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 163.
    R. Castaing, L. Henry, J. Microsc. 3, 133 (1964)Google Scholar
  7. 164.
    R.M. Henkelman, F.P. Ottensmeyer, J. Microsc. 102, 79 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 165.
    G.F. Rempfer, M.S. Mauck, Proc. Annu. Meet. EMSA. 43, 132 (1985)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Rose
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Angewandte PhysikTU DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations