Tensile Properties of Hair

  • Leszek J. Wolfram


A brief discussion of the fundamental elements of hair structure of hair and their interplay with absorbed water is followed by an informative review of elastic properties of hair as revealed by the longitudinal stress measurements. Evaluation of tensile properties of hair focuses on the measurement techniques and their utility in assessing hair response to environmental effects and cosmetic processes.


Tensile Property Cuticle Cell Cuticle Layer Orthosilicic Acid Hair Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Rivett DE (1984) The cell membrane complex and its influence on the properties of wool. Wool Sci Rev 3:35Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jones LN, Swift JA (1988) Structure of the fully formed hair shaft. In: Butler H (ed) Fundamentals of human hair science. Micelle Press, Weymouth, p 7Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Slayter G (1962) Two phase materials. Sci Am 206:24Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fraser RDB, MacRae TP, Millward GR, Parry DAD, Suzuki A, Tulloch PA (1971) The molecular structure of keratins. Appl Polym Symp 18:65Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bendit EG, Feughelman M (1968) Keratin. In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology, vol 8. Wiley, New York, p 29Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Franbourg A, LeRoy F, Escoubesh M, Leveque J-L (2007) Influence of ethnic origin of hair on water-keratin interaction. In: Berardesca E, Leveque J-L, Maibach H (eds) Ethnic skin and hair. Informa Healthcare, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Speakman JB (1927) The intercellular structure of the wool fibre. J Text Inst 18:T431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feughelman M (1959) A two phase structure for keratin fiber. Text Res J 29:223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feughelman M (1997) Mechanical properties and structure of alpha-keratin fibers. Nada Madjar editor. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, p 17Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolfram LJ (1965) Reactivity of disulphide bonds in strained keratin. Nature 206:304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wolfram LJ, Lennhoff M (1966) The effect of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of keratin fibers. J Text Inst 57:T590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garcia MN, Nadgorny EM, Wolfram LJ (1990) Letter to the editor. J Soc Cosmet Chem 41:149Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robbins CR, Crawford RJ (1991) Cuticle damage and tensile properties of human hair. J Soc Cosmet Chem 42:59Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolfram LJ, Lindemann KO (1971) Some observations on the hair cuticle. J Soc Cosmet Chem 22:839Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feughelman M (1997) Mechanical properties and structure of alpha-keratin fibers. Nada Madjar editor. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, p 6Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolfram LJ, Albrecht L (1985) Torsional behavior of hair. J Cosmet Chem 30:87Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolfram LJ (1981) The reactivity of human hair. A review. In: Orfanos CE, Montagna W, Stuettgen G (eds) Hair research. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wolfram LJ, Albrecht L (1987) Chemical-and photo-bleaching of brown and red hair. J Soc Cosmet Chem 82:179Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chandrasbekara MN, Ranganthaiah C (2010) Chemical and photochemical degradation of human hair. A free volume microprobe study. J Photochem Photobiol B 101:286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hollfelder B, Blankenburg G, Wolfram LJ (1985) Chemical and physical properties of pigmented and non-pigmented hair. Int J Cosmet Sci 17:87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaplan PD, Polefka T, Grove G, Daly S, Jumbelic L, Harper D, Nori M, Ramaprasad R, Biancini R (2000) Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibers with loss of pigmentation in photoprotected population. Int J Cosmet Sci 33:171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gupta AB, Ghosh KG, Haldar B (1979) Comparison of the tensile properties of human scalp hair with and without pigment. Indian J Dermatol 24:55jGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolfram LJ (1984) Effect of heat on hair. Letter to the editor. J Soc Cosmet Chem 35:229Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wickett RR, Kossmann E, Barel A, Demeester N, Clarys P, Vanden Berghe D, Calomme M (2007) Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on hair tensile strength and morphology in women with fine hair. Arch Dermatol Res 299:499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations