Development of a Bilingual Parallel Corpus of Arabic and Saudi Sign Language: Part I

  • Yahya O. Mohamed Elhadj
  • Zouhir Zemirli
  • Kamel Ayyadi
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 182)


The advances in Science and Technology made it possible for people with hearing impairments and deaf to be more involved and get better chances of education, access to information, knowledge and interaction with the large society. Exploiting these advances to empower hearing-impaired and deaf persons with knowledge is a challenge as much as it is a need. Here, we present a part of our work in a national project to develop an environment for automatic translation from Arabic to Saudi Sign Language using 3D animations. One of the main objectives of this project is to develop a bilingual parallel corpus for automatic translation purposes; avatar-based 3D animations are also supposed to be built. These linguistic resources will be used for supporting development of ICT applications for deaf community. Due to the complexity of this task, the corpus is being developed progressively. In this paper, we present a first part of the corpus by working on a specific topic from the Islamic sphere.


Sign Language Saudi Sign Language Arabic Sign Languages Corpus Linguistic Resources 3D animation Avatar Virtual Reality Multimedia Content Parallel Corpus Bilingual Corpus Machine Translation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dash, N.S., Chaudhuri, B.B.: Why do we need to develop corpora in Indian languages? In: Proc. of the International Working Conference on Sharing Capability in Localization and Human Language Technologies (SCALLA 2001), Organized by ASI@ITC of the European Commission, and held at the National Centre of Software Technology, Bangalore, November 21-23 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davies, M.: Corpus of Contemporary American English: 425 million words, 1990-present (2008),
  3. 3.
    Reppen, R., Ide, N., Suderman, K.: American National Corpus (ANC): Second Release. Linguistic Data Consortium, Philadelphia (2005),
  4. 4.
    Davies, M.: British National Corpus from Oxford University Press (2004),
  5. 5.
    Davies, M.: Corpus del Español (2002),
  6. 6.
    Davies, M., Michael, F.: Corpus do Português (2006),
  7. 7.
    Canning, J.: Disability and residence abroad. Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies Good Practice Guide (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alansary, S., Magdi, N., Adly, N.: Building an international corpus of Arabic (ICA): Progress of Compilation Stage. In: 7th Int. Conf. on Language Eng., Cairo, Egypt, pp. 1–30 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abdel-Fattah, M.: Arabic sign language: A perspective. Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 10(2), 212–221 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Elhadj, Y.O.M., Zemirli, Z.A.: Virtual Translator from Arabic text to Saudi Sign-Language (A2SaSL Proj). Technical Annual Report, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-Fityani, K., Padden, C.: A lexical comparison of sign languages in the Arab world. In: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, Florianopolis, Brazil (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Fityani, K., Padden, C.: Sign language geography in the Arab world. In: Brentari, D. (ed.) Sign Languages: A Cambridge Survey. Cambridge University Press, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smreen, S.: Linguistic Culture of Deaf. In: International Workshop on “Deaf Communication”, Tunisia (2004) (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wismann, L., Walsh, M.: Signs of Morocco. Peace Corps Morocco, Morocco (1987)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suwayd, A.: Al-qamus al-ishari. Dar Al-Madinah Al-Kadeemah Lil-kitab, Libya, Triploi (1992)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hamzeh, M.: Vocabularies of sign language. Jordan (1993)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Institute for Promotion of the Handicapped. Tunisian Sign Dictionary. Ministry of Social Affairs and Solidarity, Tunisia (2007),
  18. 18.
    14 October Yemeni News Paper. Yemeni Sign Language Dictionary. Issue n. 14553 (August 7, 2009),
  19. 19.
    Ahmed, A.K., Ajak, S.S.: Sudanian Sign Language Dictionary. Sudanese National Federation of the Deaf, Sudan (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Al-Benali, M., Smreen, S.: Rules of Qatari Unified Sign Language. The Supreme Council for Family Affairs, Qatar (2010),
  21. 21.
    LAS: First part of the Unified Arabic Sign Dictionary. The League of Arab States & the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization, Tunisia (2000) (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    LAS: Second part of the Unified Arabic Sign Dictionary. The League of Arab States & the Supreme Council for Family Affairs, Qatar (2006) (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    SCFA: The Unified Arabic Sign Dictionary (DVD). The Supreme Council for Family Affairs, Qatar (2007) (in Arabic) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hendriks, H.B.: Jordanian Sign Language: Aspects of grammar from a cross-linguistic perspective. LOT, Janskerkhof, Amsterdam, Netherlands (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    The Aegisub Project, version is 2.1.9. It can be, downloaded from,

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yahya O. Mohamed Elhadj
    • 1
  • Zouhir Zemirli
    • 1
  • Kamel Ayyadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Arabic and Islamic ComputingAl-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, RiyadhRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA

Personalised recommendations