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D-Xylitol pp 245-263 | Cite as

Current Analytical Methods for Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement of d-Xylitol

  • Zhongqi Jiang
  • Samuel Amartey
  • Zi-Hua Jiang
  • Wensheng QinEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

d-xylitol is a naturally-occurring five-carbon sugar alcohol. It can also be derived from the chemical reduction of d-xylose. It is widely used in recent years and will continue to be used as a food additive and sweetening agent in the food industry. The qualitative detection and quantification of d-xylitol in the presence of other sugars and sugar alcohols in fruits, vegetables and other natural sources is essential for industry production. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the years for qualitative detection and quantitative measurement of d-xylitol. Since most samples to be analyzed contain a mixture of compounds, highly efficient and sensitive analytical methods for d-xylitol in the mixture are required. Current analytical methods are usually comprised of two components: (1) an efficient separation unit, and (2) a structure identification unit. In this chapter, we provide an overview on these analytical methods used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of d-xylitol in samples from various sources. Chromatography-based techniques including GC, HPLC and CE methods with different detection options, such as UV, RI, ELS, etc., have been widely used. More advanced analytical instruments derived from hyphenation of chromatography with structure determination tools such as MS and NMR are becoming more and more accessible. The GC–MS, LC–MS and LC–MS/MS have now become routine methods for d-xylitol measurement. The coupling of spectroscopic methods such as NMR and MS to the chromatography methods can also provide structural information of the compounds being analyzed. Other methods such as the immunoassay and enzymatic assay methods are also discussed.

Keywords:

d-xylitol Analytical method Detection method Chromatographic separation Spectroscopy Biosensor 

Abbreviations

H NMR

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

CZE

Capillary zone electrophoresis

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ELS

Evaporative light-scattering

ESI-MS

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

FIA

Flow injection analyisis

FID

Flame Ionization Detector

FT-ICR

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

GC

Gas chromatography

GC-FID

Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

GC-MS

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

HPAEC

High-pH anion exchange chromatography

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IC-ELISA

Indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay

IDC

1-isopropyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide perchlorate

Ig E

Immunoglobulin E

Ig G

Immunoglobulin G

ISTD

Internal standard

ITP

Capillary isotachophoresis

LC-MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LC-NMR

Liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance

MS

Mass spectrometry

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADP+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

OPLC

Optimum performance laminar chromatography

PAD

Pulsed amperometric detector

RI

Refractive index

RSD

Relative standard deviation

SIM

Selective-ion-monitoring

TLC

Thin layer chromatography

TMS

Trimethylsilylation

XDH

d-xylitol dehydrogenase

XYO

d-xylitol oxidase

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhongqi Jiang
    • 1
  • Samuel Amartey
    • 2
  • Zi-Hua Jiang
    • 3
  • Wensheng Qin
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Animal SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Division of BiologyImperial College of Science, Technology and MedicineSouth KensingtonUK
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada
  4. 4.Department of Biology & Biorefining Research InstituteLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

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