Advertisement

Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

  • Thomas H. Williamson
Chapter

Abstract

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a cellular proliferation producing ‘epiretinal membranes’ in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Primary RRDs which have been present for weeks or months are likely to develop PVR. At presentation, the rate of PVR in all patients with RRD varies depending on the ease of access to health care; where prompt surgery is available, PVR rates of 5 % are expected; however, where there is delay in receiving surgery, PVR rates are much higher, for example, 53 % in South America (Tseng et al. 2004) and 17.5 % in East Africa (Yorston et al. 2002). Failed surgery increases the risk of postoperative PVR which has been reported in 5 % of RRDs with U tears, 18 % with paravascular tears and 25 % of giant retinal tears (Bonnet et al. 1996).

Keywords

Retinal Detachment Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Heavy Liquid Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

RRD (651,259 KB)

References

  1. (1992) Vitrectomy with silicone oil or perfluoropropane gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a randomized clinical trial. Silicone Study Report 2. Arch Ophthalmol 110(6):780–792Google Scholar
  2. Asaria RH, Kon CH, Bunce C, Charteris DG, Wong D, Khaw PT, Aylward GW (2001) Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and heparin prevents proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results from a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Ophthalmology 108(7):1179–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barr CC, Lai MY, Lean JS, Linton KL, Trese M, Abrams G, Ryan SJ, Azen SP (1993) Postoperative intraocular pressure abnormalities in the Silicone Study. Silicone Study Report 4. Ophthalmology 100(11):1629–1635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson SE, Schlottmann PG, Bunce C, Xing W, Charteris DG (2006) Optical coherence tomography analysis of the macula after vitrectomy surgery for retinal detachment. Ophthalmology 113(7):1179–1183. doi:S0161-6420(06)00118-7[pii],10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.01.039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenkranz M, Hernandez E, Ophir A, Norton EW (1984) 5-fluorouracil: new applications in complicated retinal detachment for an established antimetabolite. Ophthalmology 91(2):122–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnet M, Fleury J, Guenoun S, Yaniali A, Dumas C, Hajjar C (1996) Cryopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a risk factor for postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy? Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 234(12):739–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourke RD, Cooling RJ (1996) Vascular consequences of retinectomy. Arch Ophthalmol 114(2):155–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charteris DG, Aylward GW, Wong D, Groenewald C, Asaria RH, Bunce C (2004) A randomized controlled trial of combined 5-fluorouracil and low-molecular-weight heparin in management of established proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology 111(12):2240–2245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coll GE, Chang S, Sun J, Wieland MR, Berrocal MH (1995) Perfluorocarbon liquid in the management of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology 102(4):630–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cowley M, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA, Kaiser D, Gaskin H (1989) Clinical risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 107(8):1147–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cox MS, Trese MT, Murphy PL (1986) Silicone oil for advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology 93(5):646–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cox MS, Azen SP, Barr CC, Linton KL, Diddie KR, Lai MY, Freeman HM, Irvine A (1995) Macular pucker after successful surgery for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Silicone Study Report 8. Ophthalmology 102(12):1884–1891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Diddie KR, Azen SP, Freeman HM, Boone DC, Aaberg TM, Lewis H, Radtke ND, Ryan SJ (1996) Anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy in the silicone study. Silicone Study Report Number 10. Ophthalmology 103(7):1092–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Duquesne N, Bonnet M, Adeleine P (1996) Preoperative vitreous hemorrhage associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a risk factor for postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy? Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 234(11):677–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fisher YL, Shakin JL, Slakter JS, Sorenson JA, Shafer DM (1988) Perfluoropropane gas, modified panretinal photocoagulation, and vitrectomy in the management of severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 106(9):1255–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glaser BM, Cardin A, Biscoe B (1987) Proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The mechanism of development of vitreoretinal traction. Ophthalmology 94(4):327–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Glaser BM, Vidaurri-Leal J, Michels RG, Campochiaro PA (1993) Cryotherapy during surgery for giant retinal tears and intravitreal dispersion of viable retinal pigment epithelial cells. Ophthalmology 100(4):466–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Han DP, Rychwalski PJ, Mieler WF, Abrams GW (1994) Management of complex retinal detachment with combined relaxing retinotomy and intravitreal perfluoro-n-octane injection. Am J Ophthalmol 118(1):24–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Iverson DA, Ward TG, Blumenkranz MS (1990) Indications and results of relaxing retinotomy. Ophthalmology 97(10):1298–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kon CH, Asaria RH, Occleston NL, Khaw PT, Aylward GW (2000) Risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after primary vitrectomy: a prospective study. Br J Ophthalmol 84(5):506–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lam RF, Cheung BT, Yuen CY, Wong D, Lam DS, Lai WW (2008) Retinal redetachment after silicone oil removal in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a prognostic factor analysis. Am J Ophthalmol 145(3):527–533. doi:S0002-9394(07)00922-1[pii],10.1016/j.ajo.2007.10.015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lewis H, Aaberg TM (1991) Causes of failure after repeat vitreoretinal surgery for recurrent proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 111(1):15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewis H, Verdaguer JI (1996) Surgical treatment for chronic hypotony and anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 122(2):228–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis H, Aaberg TM, Abrams GW, McDonald HR, Williams GA, Mieler WF (1989) Subretinal membranes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology 96(9):1403–1414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Machemer R, Aaberg TM, Freeman HM, Irvine AR, Lean JS, Michels RM (1991) An updated classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 112(2):159–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Moisseiev J, Glaser BM (1989) New and previously unidentified retinal breaks in eyes with recurrent retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 107(8):1152–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. O’Connell SR, Majji AB, Humayun MS, De Juan E Jr (2000) The surgical management of hypotony. Ophthalmology 107(2):318–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Quiram PA, Gonzales CR, Hu W, Gupta A, Yoshizumi MO, Kreiger AE, Schwartz SD (2006) Outcomes of vitrectomy with inferior retinectomy in patients with recurrent rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology 113(11):2041-2047. doi:S0161-6420(06)00725-1[pii]10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.05.039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schwartz SD, Kreiger AE (1998) Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a natural history of the fellow eye. Ophthalmology 105(5):785–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scott IU, Flynn HW, Lai M, Chang S, Azen SP (2000) First operation anatomic success and other predictors of postoperative vision after complex retinal detachment repair with vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Am J Ophthalmol 130(6):745–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scott IU, Flynn HW Jr, Murray TG, Feuer WJ (2003) Outcomes of surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative ­vitreoretinopathy using perfluoro-n-octane: a multicenter study. Am J Ophthalmol 136(3):454–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stappler T, Williams R, Wong D (2010) F4H5: a novel substance for the removal of silicone oil from intraocular lenses. Br J Ophthalmol 94(3):364–367. doi:bjo.2009.161489[pii],10.1136/bjo.2009.161489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stern WH, Lewis GP, Erickson PA, Guerin CJ, Anderson DH, Fisher SK, O’Donnell JJ (1983) Fluorouracil therapy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after vitrectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 96(1):33–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Stolba U, Binder S, Velikay M, Datlinger P, Wedrich A (1995) Use of perfluorocarbon liquids in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results and complications. Br J Ophthalmol 79(12):1106–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tseng W, Cortez RT, Ramirez G, Stinnett S, Jaffe GJ (2004) Prevalence and risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment but no previous vitreoretinal surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 137(6):1105–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vidaurri-Leal J, de Bustros S, Michels RG (1984) Surgical treatment of giant retinal tears with inverted posterior retinal flaps. Am J Ophthalmol 98(4):463–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wiedemann P, Hilgers RD, Bauer P, Heimann K (1998) Adjunctive daunorubicin in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a multicenter clinical trial. Daunomycin Study Group. Am J Ophthalmol 126(4):550–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yorston DB, Wood ML, Gilbert C (2002) Retinal detachment in East Africa. Ophthalmology 109(12):2279–2283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas H. Williamson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologySt. Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations