• Thomas H. Williamson


Ocular trauma remains a leading cause of visual loss, most often affecting men (on average five males are affected to one female). Patients are usually aged less than 30 years, and trauma is often associated with alcohol and illicit drug usage (Parver et al. 1993). In the elderly, males and females are equally involved (Tielsch et al. 1989). Incidence has been estimated as 3:10,000 of population (Tielsch and Parver 1990; Canavan et al. 1980). Severe injuries account for 5 % of all eye injuries (Schein et al. 1988). Aetiology is variable, but certain associations are common, for example, assault, sport, children at play, road traffic accidents and industrial, domestic and war injuries (Liggett et al. 1990a; Khatry et al. 2004; Appiah 1991; Ahmadieh et al. 1993). The patterns of ocular trauma are constantly changing depending on social, demographic and geographical variations. The clinical characteristics vary widely. Intraocular foreign bodies are common in war (Ahmadieh et al. 1993) and road traffic accidents especially when car seat belts are not worn (Ghoraba 2002). In children, sharp objects are commonly implicated, and the complication of amblyopia limits visual recovery (Alfaro et al. 1994a). The wearing of spectacles has been found to be protective (May et al. 2000).


Foreign Body Retinal Detachment Macular Hole Vitreous Haemorrhage Vitreous Cavity 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas H. Williamson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologySt. Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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