Article 37 [Agreements Concluded by the Union with Third States or International Organisations]

(ex-Article 24 TEU)
  • Hermann-Josef Blanke
  • Stelio Mangiameli


The Union 3–6 may conclude agreements 9,11 with one or more States or international organisations 9 in areas covered by this chapter. 10


International Agreement International Criminal Legal Personality Advisory Opinion Council Decision 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Table of Cases

  1. ECJ 31.03.1971, 22/70, Commission v. Council (European Agreement on Road Transport), ECR 263 [cit. in para 2]Google Scholar
  2. ECJ 16.06.1998, C-162/96, A. Racke GmbH & Co. v Hauptzollamt Mainz, ECR I-3655 [cit. in para 9]Google Scholar
  3. ECJ 25.02.2010, C-386/08, Brita GmbH v. Hauptzollamt Hamburg-Hafen, ECR I-1289 [cit. in para 9]Google Scholar


  1. Amerasinghe, C. F. (2005). Principles of the institutional law of international organizations (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aust, A. (2007). Modern treaty law and practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blokker, N. M., & Heukels, T. (1998). The European Union: Historical origins and institutional challenges. In T. Heukels, N. Blokker, & M. Brus (Eds.), The European Union after Amsterdam – A legal analysis (pp. 9–50). The Hague: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  4. Boyle, A. E., & Chinkin, C. M. (2007). The making of international law. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  5. Brownlie, I. (2008). Principles of public international law (7th ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  6. Calliess, C., & Ruffert, M. (Eds.). (2011). EUV/AEUV Kommentar: Das Verfassungsrecht der Europäischen Union mit Europäischer Grundrechtecharta (4th ed.). München: Beck.Google Scholar
  7. Cannizzaro, E. (2003). Fragmented sovereignty? The European Union and its Member States in the International Arena. Italian Yearbook of International Law, 13, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cremona, M. (1998). The European Union as an international actor: The issues of flexibility and linkage. European Foreign Affairs Review, 3(1), 67–94.Google Scholar
  9. Curtin, D. (1993). The constitutional structure of the Union: A Europe of bits and pieces. Common Market Law Review, 30(1), 17–69.Google Scholar
  10. de Witte, B. (1998). The pillar structure and the nature of the European Union: Greek temple or French Gothic cathedral? In T. Heukels, N. Blokker, & M. Brus (Eds.), The European Union after Amsterdam – A legal analysis (pp. 51–68). The Hague: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  11. de Zwaan, J. W. (1999). The legal personality of the European Communities and the European Union. Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, 30, 75–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dörr, O. (1995). Zur Rechtsnatur der Europäischen Union. Europarecht, 30(4), 334 et seqq.Google Scholar
  13. Editorial Comment. (2001). The European Union – A new international actor. Common Market Law Review, 38(4), 825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eeckhout, P. (2005). External relations of the European Union: Legal and constitutional foundations. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  15. Everling, U. (1992). Reflections on the structure of the European Union. Common Market Law Review, 29(4), 1053–1077.Google Scholar
  16. Gautier, P. (2000). The reparation for injuries case revisited: The personality of the European Union. Max-Plank Yearbook of United Nations Law, 4, 331–316.Google Scholar
  17. Grabitz, E., Hilf, M., & Nettesheim, M. (2010). Das Recht der Europäischen Union. München: Beck.Google Scholar
  18. Grard, L. C. (2006). L’Union européenne, sujet de droit international. Revue générale de droit international public, 110, 337–372.Google Scholar
  19. Hafner, G. (1998). The Amsterdam treaty and the treaty-making power of the European Union. In G. Hafner, G. Loibl, A. Rest, L. Sucharipa-Behrmann, & K. Zemanek (Eds.), Liber Amicorum Professor Ignaz Seidl-Hohenveldern in honour of his 80th birthday (pp. 257–284). The Hague: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  20. Heukels, T., & de Zwaan, J. W. (1994). The configuration of the European Union: Community dimensions of institutional interaction. In D. Curtin & T. Heukels (Eds.), Institutional dynamics of European integration: Essays in honour of Henry G. Schermers (pp. 195–228). Dordrecht/Boston: M. Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  21. Klabbers, J. (1998). Presumptive personality: The European Union in international law. In M. Koskenniemi (Ed.), International law aspects of the European Union (pp. 231–253). The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  22. Klabbers, J. (2009). An introduction to international institutional law (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kleine, M. (2005). Die militärische Komponente der Europäischen Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik: Eine Untersuchung aus europarechtlicher und verfassungsrechtlicher Perspektive. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  24. Koutrakos, P. (2006). EU international relations law. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  25. Langrish, S. (1998). The treaty of Amsterdam: Selected highlights. European Law Review, 23(1), 3–19.Google Scholar
  26. Leal-Arcas, R. (2007). EU legal personality in foreign policy? Boston University International Law Journal, 24(2), 165–212.Google Scholar
  27. Lenaerts, K., & De Smijter, E. (1999–2000). The European Union as an actor under international law. Yearbook of European Law, 19, 95–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manin, P. (1987). The European Communities and the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between states and international organizations or between international organizations. Common Market Law Review, 24(3), 457–481.Google Scholar
  29. Marquardt, S. (2001). The conclusion of international agreements under Article 24 of the treaty on European Union. In V. Kronenberger (Ed.), The European Union and the international legal order: Discord or harmony? (pp. 333–349). The Hague: TMC Asser Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marquardt, S. (2003). La capacité de l’Union européenne de conclure des accords internationaux dans le domaine de la coopération policière et judiciaire en matière pénale. In G. de Kerchove & A. Weyembergh (Eds.), Sécurité et justice: enjeu de la politique extérieure de l’Union européenne (pp. 179–194). Brussels: Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  31. Mignolli, A. (2001). Sul treaty-making power nel secondo e nel terzo pilastro dell’Unione europea. Rivista di diritto internazionale, 84(4), 978–1008.Google Scholar
  32. Monar, J. (1997). The European Union’s foreign affairs system after the treaty of Amsterdam: A “strengthened capacity for external action”? European Foreign Affairs Review, 2(4), 413–436.Google Scholar
  33. Naert, F. (2007). ESDP in practice: Increasingly varied and ambitious EU security and defence operations. In M. Trybus, & N. D. White (Eds.), European Security Law (p. 61 et seqq.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  34. Neuwahl, N. A. E. M. (1998). A partner with a troubled personality: EU treaty-making in matters of CFSP and JHA after Amsterdam. European Foreign Affairs Review, 3(2), 177–195.Google Scholar
  35. Paasivirta, E. (1997). The European Union: From an aggregate of states to a legal person? Hofstra Law and Policy Symposium, 2, 37–59.Google Scholar
  36. Pachinger, M. M. (2003). Die Völkerrechtspersönlichkeit der Europäischen Union. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  37. Passos, R., & Marquardt, S. (2007). International agreements: Competences, procedures and judicial control. In G. Amato, H. Bribosia, & B. de Witte (Eds.), Genèse et destinée de la Constitution européenne: Commentaire du Traité établissant une Constitution pour l’Europe à la lumière des travaux préparatoires et perspectives d’avenir (pp. 875–915). Brussels: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  38. Pechstein, M. (1996). Rechtssubjektivität für die Europäische Union? Europarecht, 31(1), 137–144.Google Scholar
  39. Rama-Montaldo, M. (1970). International legal personality and implied powers of international organizations. British Yearbook of International Law, 44, 111–155.Google Scholar
  40. Reichard, M. (2004). Some legal issues concerning the EU-NATO Berlin Plus agreement. Nordic Journal of International Law, 73(1), 37–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reichard, M. (2006). The EU–NATO relationship: A legal and political perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  42. Ress, G. (1995). Ist die Europäische Union eine juristische Person? Europarecht (Suppl. 2), 27–40.Google Scholar
  43. Sands, P., & Klein, P. (2009). Bowett’s law of international institutions (6th ed.). London: Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
  44. Sari, A. (2007). The EU Status of Forces Agreement: Continuity and change in the law of visiting forces. Revue de droit militaire et de droit de la guerre, 46(1), 9–254.Google Scholar
  45. Sari, A. (2008a). The EU Status of Forces Agreement (EU SOFA). Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 13(3), 353–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sari, A. (2008b). Status of Forces and Status of Mission Agreements under the ESDP: The EU’s evolving practice. European Journal of International Law, 19(1), 67–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sari, A. (2008c). The conclusion of international agreements by the European Union in the context of the ESDP. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 57(1), 53–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thym, D. (2006). Die völkerrechtlichen Verträge der Europäischen Union. Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 66, 863–925.Google Scholar
  49. Tizzano, A. (1998). La personnalité internationale de l’Union européenne. Revue du Marché Unique Européen, 4(1), 11–40.Google Scholar
  50. Tsagourias, N. (2007). EU peacekeeping operations: Legal and theoretical issues. In M. Trybus & N. D. White (Eds.), European Security Law (pp. 102–133). Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Verwey, D. R. (2004). The European Community, the European Union and the international law of treaties. The Hague: TMC Asser Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vignes, D. (1998). L’absence de personnalité juridique de l’Union européenne: Amsterdam persiste et signe. In G. Hafner, G. Loibl, A. Rest, L. Sucharipa-Behrmann, & K. Zemanek (Eds.), Liber Amicorum Professor Seidl-Hohenveldern (pp. 757–770). The Hague: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  53. von Bogdandy, A., & Nettesheim, M. (1996). Ex Pluribus Unum: Fusion of the European Communities into the European Union. European Law Journal, 2(3), 267–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wessel, R. A. (1997). The international legal status of the European Union. European Foreign Affairs Review, 2(1), 109–129.Google Scholar
  55. Wessel, R. A. (2000). Revisiting the international legal status of the EU. European Foreign Affairs Review, 5(4), 507–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. White, N. D. (2005). The law of international organisations (2nd ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Wichard, J. C. (1999). Wer ist Herr im europäischen Haus? Europarecht, 34(1), 170–184.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann-Josef Blanke
    • 1
  • Stelio Mangiameli
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty for Economics, Law and Social ScienceUniversity of ErfurtErfurtGermany
  2. 2.National Research Council Institute for Regionalism, Federalism and Self-GovernmentRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations