Artificial Intelligence and the Body: Dreyfus, Bickhard, and the Future of AI
For those who find Dreyfus’s critique of AI compelling, the prospects for producing true artificial human intelligence are bleak. An important question thus becomes, what are the prospects for producing artificial non-human intelligence? Applying Dreyfus’s work to this question is difficult, however, because his work is so thoroughly human-centered. Granting Dreyfus that the body is fundamental to intelligence, how are we to conceive of non-human bodies? In this paper, I argue that bringing Dreyfus’s work into conversation with the work of Mark Bickhard offers a way of answering this question, and I try to suggest what doing so means for AI research.
KeywordsSkillful Coping Human Intelligence Downward Causation Intelligent Creature Artificial Intelli
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bickhard, M.: Emergence. In: Andersen, P.B., Emmeche, C., Finnemann, N.O., Christiansen, P.V. (eds.) Downward Causation, pp. 322–348. University of Aarhus Press, Aarhus (2000)Google Scholar
- Bickhard, M.H., Terveen, L.: Foundational issues in artificial intelligence and cognitive science: impasse and solution. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1995)Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H.L.: Why Computers Must Have Bodies in Order to Be Intelligent. The Review of Metaphysics 21(1), 13–32 (1967)Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H.L.: Being-in-the-world: a commentary on Heidegger’s Being and time, division I. MIT Press, Cambridge (1991)Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H.L.: What computers still can’t do: a critique of artificial reason. MIT Pr., Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H.L.: Responses. In: Wrathall, M.A., Malpas, J. (eds.) Heidegger, Coping, and Cognitive Science. Essays in Honor of Hubert L Dreyfus, vol. 2, pp. 314–349. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H.L.: Overcoming the Myth of the Mental: How Philosophers Can Profit from the Phenomenology of Everyday Expertise. APA Pacific Division Presidential Address (2005)Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H.L., Dreyfus, S.E.: The Challenge of Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Embodiment for Cognitive Science. In: Weiss, G., Haber, H.F. (eds.) Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersection of Nature and Culture. Routledge, New York (1999)Google Scholar
- van der Zant, T.: Generative AI: A Neo-Cybernetic Analysis. University Library Groningen, Groningen (2010)Google Scholar