Mechanism of Type I Hypersensitivity

  • Cheng Zhou
Part of the Advanced Topics in Science and Technology in China book series (ATSTC)


The increasing prevalence of allergic disorders is currently a serious problem with public health. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergies (type I hypersensitivity or immediate reactions) will enable us to improve our treatment with allergic diseases. In this chapter, the features of type I hypersensitivity reactions and the major components involved as well as their potential roles in the induction and regulation of allergic responses are discussed. A half century ago, Gell and Coombs classified the hypersensitivity reactions into four types based on the immunologic mechanisms related to the symptoms in the organism (Gell and Coombs, 1963). Though this classification has many limitations since hypersensitive reactions always showed mixed pathological mechanisms, it is still widely accepted today. Here, we will present our insights on the basic mechanism of type I hypersensitivity reactions.


Mast Cell Stem Cell Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcorn, J.F., Crowe, C.R., Kolls, J.K. (2010). TH17 cells in asthma and COPD. Annu Rev Physiol, 72, 495–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amu, S., Saunders, S.P., Kronenberg, M., Mangan, N.E., Atzberger, A., Fallon, P.G. (2010). Regulatory B-cells prevent and reverse allergic airway inflammation via FoxP3-positive T regulatory cells in a murine model. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 125(5), 1114–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chaplin, D.D. (2010). Overview of the immune response. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 125(2), S3–S23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooke, R.A., van der Veer, A. (1916).Human sensitization. J Immunol, 1(3), 201–305.Google Scholar
  5. Durrant, D.M., Metzger, D.W. (2010). Emerging roles of T helper subsets in the pathogenesis of asthma. Immunol Invest, 39(4–5), 526–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gell, P.G.H., Coombs, R.R.A. (1963). The Classification of Allergic Reactions Underlying Disease. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  7. Gilfillan, A.M., Rivera, J. (2009). The tyrosine kinase network regulating mast cell activation. Immunol Rev, 228(1), 149–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hogan, S.P., Rosenberg, H.F., Moqbel, R., Phipps, S., Foster, P.S., Lacy, P., Kay, A.B., Rothenberg, M.E. (2008). Eosinophils: Biological properties and role in health and disease. Clin Exp Allergy, 38(5), 709–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jiz, M., Friedman, J.F., Leenstra, T., Jarilla, B., Pablo, A., Langdon, G., Pond-Tor, S., Wu, H.W., Manalo, D., Olveda, R., et al. (2009). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to paramyosin predict resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma japonicum and are attenuated by IgG4. Infect Immun, 77(5), 2051–2058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lloyd, C.M., Hawrylowicz, C.M. (2009). Regulatory T-cells in asthma. Immunity, 31(3), 438–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. MacGlashan, D. Jr. (2005). IgE and FcepsilonRI regulation. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 29(1), 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Metcalfe, D.D. (2008). Mast cells and mastocytosis. Blood, 112(4), 946–956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Metcalfe, D.D., Peavy, R.D., Gilfillan, A.M. (2009). Mechanisms of mast cell signaling in anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 124(4), 639–646; quiz 647–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mosmann, T.R., Cherwinski, H., Bond, M.W., Giedlin, M.A., Coffman, R.L. (1986). Two types of murine helper T-cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol, 136(7), 2348–2357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pali-Scholl, I., Jensen-Jarolim, E. (2009). Basic aspects of allergy and hypersensity reations. Allergy Frontiers: Classification and Pathome-chanisms, 2, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Palomares, O., Yaman, G., Azkur, A.K., Akkoc, T., Akdis, M., Akdis, C.A. (2010). Role of Treg in immune regulation of allergic diseases. Eur J Immunol, 40(5), 1232–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Paul W.E., Zhu, J. (2010). How are T(H)2-type immune responses initiated and amplified? Nat Rev Immunol, 10(4), 225–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Poulsen, L.K., Hummelshoj, L. (2007). Triggers of IgE class switching and allergy development. Ann Med, 39(6), 440–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Samitas, K., Lotvall, J., Bossios, A. (2010). B cells: From early development to regulating allergic diseases. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz), 58(3), 209–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schroede, J.T. (2009). Basophils beyond effector cells of allergic inflammation. Adv Immunol, 101, 123–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Siraganian, R.P., Zhang, J., Suzuki, K., Sada, K. (2002). Protein tyrosine kinase Syk in mast cell signaling. Mol Immunol, 38(16–18), 1229–1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sokol, C.L., Medzhitov, R. (2010). Role of basophils in the initiation of Th2 responses. Curr Opin Immunol, 22(1), 73–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stone, K.D., Prussin, C., Metcalfe, D.D. (2010). IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 125(2 Suppl 2), S73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yao, W., Barbe-Tuana, F.M., Llapur. C.J., et al. (2010). Evaluation of airway reactivity and immune characteristics as risk factors for wheezing early in life. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126(3), 483–488 e481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang, K. (2003). Accessibility control and machinery of immunoglobulin class switch recombination. J Leukoc Biol, 73(3), 323–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zheng, S.G., Wang, J.H., Gray, J.D., Soucier, H., Horwitz, D.A. (2004). Natural and induced CD4+CD25+ cells educate CD4+CD25-cells to develop suppressive activity: The role of IL-2, TGF-beta, and IL-10. J Immunol, 172(9), 5213–5221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhu, J., Paul, W.E. (2010). Heterogeneity and plasticity of T helper cells. Cell Res, 20(1), 4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhu, J., Yamane, H., Paul, W.E. (2010). Differentiation of effector CD4+ T-cell populations. Annu Rev Immunol, 28, 445–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ziegler, S.F., Artis, D. (2010). Sensing the outside world: TSLP regulates barrier immunity. Nat Immunol, 11(4), 289–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations