Modified Difference Expansion for Reversible Watermarking Using Fuzzy Logic Based Distortion Control

  • Hirak Kumar Maity
  • Santi P. Maity
  • Debashis Maity
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 177)


Digital watermarking using Difference Expansion (DE) is quite popular to embed reversibly the data followed by recovery of the original image. According to this algorithm, the least significant bit (LSB) of inter-pixel differences (between a pair of neighboring pixel) is used to embed data. It is seen that none of the DE works focuses on structural information retentions for the watermarked image at high embedding capacity. Moreover, security measure of the hidden data is not investigated under distortion constraint scenario. To this aim, a modification in DE is proposed that not only increase embedding space (hence, watermark payload) but also makes little change in structure and contrast comparison (imperceptibility) under similar luminance background. A simple fuzzy function is used to classify the image content into smooth, texture and edge region followed by adaptive distortion control. Modification also makes little change in relative entropy between the host and the watermarked data that leads to better security of the hidden data.


Reversible watermarking LSB modification difference expansion SSIM KLD and distortion control 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirak Kumar Maity
    • 1
  • Santi P. Maity
    • 2
  • Debashis Maity
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of ECE & EIECollege of Engineering and ManagementKolaghatAAA
  2. 2.Dept. of Information TechnologyBengal Engineering and Science UniversityHowrahIndia

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