Advertisement

Super Peer Deployment in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 176)

Abstract

Two-layer hierarchy unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, comprising an upper layer of super-peers and an underlying layer of ordinary peers, are commonly used to improve the performance of large-scale P2P systems. A perfect difference graph has desirable properties to satisfy the above design rationale of super-peers overlay network. This paper proposes a two-layer hierarchical unstructured P2P system in which a perfect difference graph (PDG) is used to dynamically construct and maintain the super-peer overlay topology. In addition, the broadcasting performance of the P2P system is enhanced through the use of a PDG-based forwarding algorithm which ensures that each super-peer receives just one lookup query flooding message. The theoretical results show that the proposed system improves existing super-peer hierarchical unstructured P2P systems in terms of a smaller network diameter, fewer lookup flooding messages, and a reduced average delay and the experimental results show that the proposed two-layer hierarchy P2P system performs very well in the dynamic network environment.

Keywords

Unstructured peer-to-peer system super-peer perfect difference graph forwarding algorithm 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gnutella -A protocol for Revolution, http://rfc-gnutella.sourceforge.net.com/
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Overnet/edonkey2000 (2000), http://www.edon-key2000.com/
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    West, D.B.: Introduction to Graph Theory. Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bollobás, B.: Random Graphs. Academic Press, London (1985)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kurose, J.F., Ross, K.W.: Computer Networking: A Top-down Approach Featuring the Internet, 3rd edn. Addison WesleyGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parhami, B., Rakov, M.: Perfect Difference Networks and Related Interconnection Structures for Parallel and Distributed Systems. IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems 16(8), 714–724 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parhami, B., Rakov, M.: Performance, Algorithmic, and Robustness Attributes of Perfect Difference Networks. IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems 16(8), 725–736 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiao, L., Zhuang, Z., Liu, Y.: Dynamic layer management in superpeer architectures. IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems 16(11), 1078–1091 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dalal, Y., Metcalfe, R.: Reverse Path Forwarding of Broadcast Packets. Communications of the ACM 21(12), 1040–1048 (1978)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stoica, I., Morris, R., et al.: Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications. IEEE/ACM Trans. on Net. 11(1), 17–32 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gallager, R.G., Humblet, P.A., Spira, P.M.: A Distributed Algorithm for Minimum Weight-Spanning Trees. ACM Trans. on Programming Languages and Systems, 66–77 (January 1983)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gartner, F.C.: A Survey of Self-Stabilizing Spanning-Tree Construction Algorithms. Technical Report IC/2003/38, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. School of Computer and Communication Sciences (June 10 2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yan, J., Yang, Y., Raikundalia, G.K.: A SwinDeW p2p-based Decentralized Workflow Management System. IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A 36(5), 922–935 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baumert, L.D.: Cyclic Difference Sets. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 182. Springer (1971)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kirkman, T.P.: On the Perfect r-Partitions of r2+r+1. Trans. Historical Soc. of Lancashire and Cheshire 9, 127–142 (1857)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guy, R.K.: Unsolved Problems in Number Theory, 2nd edn., pp. 118–121. Springer (1994)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems. In: Guerraoui, R. (ed.) Middleware 2001. LNCS, vol. 2218, pp. 329–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao, B.Y., et al.: Tapestry: A Resilient Global- Scale Overlay for Service Deployment. IEEE JSAC 22(1), 41–53 (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lua, K., Crowcroft, J., Pias, M., Sharma, R., Lim, S.: A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lv, C., Cao, P., Cohen, E., Li, K., Shenker, S.: Search and replication in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. In: ICS (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ratnasamy, S., et al.: A Scalable Content Addressable Network. In: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 161–172 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSE DepartmentChettinad College of Engineering & TechnologyKarurIndia

Personalised recommendations