Cooperation and Conflict with Kristian Birkeland
Because the professional and personal lives of professor Kristian Birkeland and Carl Størmer strongly intertwined, a brief curriculum vitae appears useful. Birkeland’s career spanned a watershed period when insights about electricity and magnetism, codified by Maxwell in the mid-nineteenth century, evolved from theoretical curiosities to become the basis for our present understanding of the Earth’s space environment.
KeywordsLaboratory Simulation Trajectory Calculation Numerical Integration Technique Norsk Hydro Proton Precipitation
- Birkeland, Kr., 1916: Are the Solar Corpuscle Rays that Penetrate into the Earth’s Atmosphere Negative or Positive Rays.Vitenskapsselskapets skrifter, Kristiania. No 1 (27 pages).Google Scholar