Meiosis in Polyploid Plants

  • Marie-Luise Zielinski
  • Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid


Meiosis is an obligate process during sexual reproduction, which involves the combination of parental genomes and the coordinated segregation of the recombined chromosomes to the gametes. Polyploidy has direct and fundamental consequences on meiosis, which are gradually and individually different between the extreme cases of auto- and allopolyploids. Multiple chromosome complements have a major impact, especially on chromosome pairing during pachytene and on the segregation of genotypes and phenotypes in progeny. At the same time, irregularities during meiosis are a major source of naturally occurring polyploidization events by the formation of unreduced gametes. Although individuals originating from nonhaploid gametes may suffer from reduced vigor and fecundity, their gametogenesis can produce many more chromosomal combinations than regular diploids, and thereby expose more diversity to natural selection. A more relaxed control of pairing and segregation in polyploids, possibly also with increased recombination rates, might be an important contribution to evolution and adaptation potential, especially under drastic or frequent changes in environmental conditions.


Sister Chromatid Homologous Chromosome Synaptonemal Complex Meiotic Recombination Unreduced Gamete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adamowski ED, Pagliarini MS, Batista LAR (1998) Chromosome elimination in paspalum subciliatum (Notata group). Sex Plant Reprod 11(5):272–276Google Scholar
  2. Agashe B, Prasad CK, Siddiqi I (2002) Identification and analysis of DYAD: a gene required for meiotic chromosome organisation and female meiotic progression in Arabidopsis. Development 129(16):3935–3943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albertin W, Marullo P, Aigle M, Bourgais A, Bely M, Dillmann C, De Vienne D, Sicard D (2009) Evidence for autotetraploidy associated with reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: towards a new domesticated species. J Evol Biol 22(11):2157–2170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson LK, Stack SM (2005) Recombination nodules in plants. Cytogenet Genome Res 109(1–3):198–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andru S, Pan YB, Thongthawee S, Burner DM, Kimbeng CA (2011) Genetic analysis of the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar LCP 85-384’. I. Linkage mapping using AFLP, SSR, and TRAP markers. Theor Appl Genet 123(1):77–93Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong SJ, Franklin FCH, Jones GH (2003) A meiotic time-course for Arabidopsis thaliana. Sex Plant Reprod 16(3):141–149Google Scholar
  7. Asker S, Jerling L (1992) Apomixis in plants. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  8. Avivi L, Feldman M (1980) Arrangement of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus of plants. Hum Genet 55(3):281–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barth S, Melchinger AE, Devezi-Savula B, Lubberstedt T (2001) Influence of genetic background and heterozygosity on meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome 44(6):971–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bass HW, Marshall WF, Sedat JW, Agard DA, Cande WZ (1997) Telomeres cluster de novo before the initiation of synapsis: a three-dimensional spatial analysis of telomere positions before and during meiotic prophase. J Cell Biol 137(1):5–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baudat F, de Massy B (2007) Regulating double-stranded DNA break repair towards crossover or non-crossover during mammalian meiosis. Chromosome Res 15(5):565–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayliss MW, Riley R (1972) Analysis of temperature-dependent asynapsis in Triticum aestivum. Genet Res 20(2):193Google Scholar
  13. Beaulieu JC, Lea JM (2006) Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction. J Agric Food Chem 54(20):7789–7793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennett MD (1977) The time and duration of meiosis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 277(955):201–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhatt AM, Canales C, Dickinson HG (2001) Plant meiosis: the means to 1 N. Trends Plant Sci 6(3):114–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Borner GV, Kleckner N, Hunter N (2004) Crossover/noncrossover differentiation, synaptonemal complex formation, and regulatory surveillance at the leptotene/zygotene transition of meiosis. Cell 117(1):29–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brownfield L, Kohler C (2011) Unreduced gamete formation in plants: mechanisms and prospects. J Exp Bot 62(5):1659–1668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brubaker CL, Paterson AH, Wendel JF (1999) Comparative genetic mapping of allotetraploid cotton and its diploid progenitors. Genome 42(2):184–203Google Scholar
  19. Burton TL, Husband BC (2001) Fecundity and offspring ploidy in matings among diploid, triploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae): consequences for tetraploid establishment. Heredity 87:573–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Butruille DV, Boiteux LS (2000) Selection-mutation balance in polysomic tetraploids: impact of double reduction and gametophytic selection on the frequency and subchromosomal localization of deleterious mutations. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97(12):6608–6613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cao DC, Osborn TC, Doerge RW (2004) Correct estimation of preferential chromosome pairing in autotetraploids. Genome Res 14(3):459–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlton PM, Farruggio AP, Dernburg AF (2006) A link between meiotic prophase progression and crossover control. PLoS Genet 2:119–128Google Scholar
  23. Carman JG (1997) Asynchronous expression of duplicate genes in angiosperms may cause apomixis, bispory, tetraspory, and polyembryony. Biol J Linn Soc 61(1):51–94Google Scholar
  24. Carvalho A, Delgado M, Baroa A, Frescatada M, Ribeiro E, Pikaard CS, Viegas W, Neves N (2010) Chromosome and DNA methylation dynamics during meiosis in the autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa. Sex Plant Reprod 23(1):29–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chan SWL (2010) Chromosome engineering: power tools for plant genetics. Trends Biotechnol 28(12):605–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. St Charles J, Hamilton ML, Petes TD (2010) Meiotic chromosome segregation in triploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 186(2):537–550Google Scholar
  27. Cifuentes M, Grandont L, Moore G, Chevre AM, Jenczewski E (2010) Genetic regulation of meiosis in polyploid species: new insights into an old question. New Phytol 186(1):29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Comai L (2005) The advantages and disadvantages of being polyploid. Nat Rev Genet 6(11):836–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Comai L, Tyagi AP, Lysak MA (2003) FISH analysis of meiosis in Arabidopsis allopolyploids. Chromosome Res 11(3):217–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Corredor E, Lukaszewski AJ, Pachon P, Allen DC, Naranjo T (2007) Terminal regions of wheat chromosomes select their pairing partners in meiosis. Genetics 177(2):699–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cowan CR, Carlton PM, Cande WZ (2001) ‘The polar arrangement of telomeres in interphase and meiosis. Rabl organization and the bouquet. Plant Physiol 125(2):532–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. d’Erfurth I, Jolivet S, Froger N, Catrice O, Novatchkova M, Mercier R (2009) Turning meiosis into mitosis. PLoS Biol 7(6):e1000124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. D’Souza TG, Storhas M, Schulenburg H, Beukeboom LW, Michiels NK (2004) Occasional sex in an ‘asexual’ polyploid hermaphrodite. Proc Biol Sci 271(1543):1001–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Darlington CD (1929a) Chromosome behaviour and structural hybridity in the tradescantiae. J Genet 21(2):207–286Google Scholar
  35. Darlington CD (1929b) Polyploids and polyploidy. Nature 124:62–64Google Scholar
  36. Dawe RK (1998) Meiotic chromosome organization and segregation in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:371–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. De Muyt A, Mercier R, Mezard C, Grelon M (2009) Meiotic recombination and crossovers in plants. Genome Dyn 5:14–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Desai A, Chee PW, Rong J, May OL, Paterson AH (2006) Chromosome structural changes in diploid and tetraploid A genomes of Gossypium. Genome 49(4):336–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. De Vicente MC, Tanksley SD (1991) Genome-wide reduction in recombination of backcross progeny derived from male versus female gametes in an interspecific cross of tomato. Theor Appl Genet 83(2):173–178 Google Scholar
  40. Doerge RW, Craig BA (2000) Model selection for quantitative trait locus analysis in polyploids. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97(14):7951–7956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dong F, Jiang J (1998) Non-Rabl patterns of centromere and telomere distribution in the interphase nuclei of plant cells. Chromosome Res 6(7):551–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dorcey E, Urbez C, Blazquez MA, Carbonell J, Perez-Amador MA (2009) Fertilization-dependent auxin response in ovules triggers fruit development through the modulation of gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis. Plant J 58(2):318–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Drouaud J, Camilleri C, Bourguignon PY, Canaguier A, Berard A, Vezon D, Giancola S, Brunel D, Colot V, Prum B et al (2007) Variation in crossing-over rates across chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals the presence of meiotic recombination “hot spots”. Genome Res 16(1):106–114Google Scholar
  44. Drouaud J, Mercier R, Chelyshev L, Bérard A, Falque M, Martin O, Zanni V, Brunel D, Mézard C (2007) Sex-specific crossover distributions and variations in interference level along Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4. PLoS Genet 3(6):e106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Edlinger B, Schlogelhofer P (2011) Have a break: determinants of meiotic DNA double strand break (DSB) formation and processing in plants. J Exp Bot 62(5):1545–1563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fisher RA (1947) The theory of linkage in polysomic inheritance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 233(594):55–87Google Scholar
  47. Francis KE, Lam SY, Harrison BD, Bey AL, Berchowitz LE, Copenhaver GP (2007) Pollen tetrad-based visual assay for meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 104(10):3913–3918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gaeta RT, Pires JC (2010) Homologous recombination in allopolyploids: the polyploid ratchet. New Phytol 186(1):18–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Griffiths S, Sharp R, Foote TN, Bertin I, Wanous M, Reader S, Colas I, Moore G (2006) Molecular characterization of Ph1 as a major chromosome pairing locus in polyploid wheat. Nature 439(7077):749–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gupta PK, Fedak G (1985) Genetic control of meiotic chromosome pairing in polyploids in the genus Hordeum. Can J Genet Cytol 27(5):515–530Google Scholar
  51. Gustaffson A (1946) Apomixis in higher plants. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift 42(2):1–370Google Scholar
  52. Hamant O, Ma H, Cande WZ (2006) Genetics of meiotic prophase I in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:267–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Harper L, Golubovskaya I, Cande WZ (2004) A bouquet of chromosomes. J Cell Sci 117(Pt 18):4025–4032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Harrison CJ, Alvey E, Henderson IR (2010) Meiosis in flowering plants and other green organisms. J Exp Bot 61(11):2863–2875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Heslop-Harrison JS, Schwarzacher T (2007) Domestication, genomics and the future for banana. Ann Bot 100(5):1073–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Holliday R (1977) Recombination and meiosis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 277(955):359–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Horandl E, Cosendai AC, Rodewald J (2011) Origin and distribution of autopolyploids via apomixis in the alpine species Ranunculus kuepferi (Ranunculaceae). Taxon 60(2):355–364Google Scholar
  58. Jannoo N, Grivet L, David J, D’Hont A, Glaszmann JC (2004) Differential chromosome pairing affinities at meiosis in polyploid sugarcane revealed by molecular markers. Heredity 93(5):460–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jenczewski E, Alix K (2004) From diploids to allopolyploids: the emergence of efficient pairing control genes in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 23(1):21–45Google Scholar
  60. Jenczewski E, Eber F, Grimaud A, Huet S, Lucas MO, Monod H, Chevre AM (2003) PrBn, a major gene controlling homologous pairing in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) haploids. Genetics 164(2):645–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jiao Y, Wickett NJ, Ayyampalayam S, Chanderbali AS, Landherr L, Ralph PE, Tomsho LP, Hu Yi, Liang H, Soltis PS et al (2011) Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature 473(7345):97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. John B, Henderson SA (1962) Asynapsis and polyploidy in Schistocerca paranensis. Chromosoma 13(2):111–147Google Scholar
  63. Jones GH (1994) Meiosis in autopolyploid crepis-capillaris 3. Comparison of triploids and tetraploids: evidence for nonindependence of autonomous pairing sites. Heredity 73:215–219Google Scholar
  64. Jones GH, Vincent JE (1994) Meiosis in autopolyploid crepis capillaris 2. Autotetraploids. Genome 37(3):497–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kamiri M, Stift M, Srairi I, Costantino G, Moussadik AE, Hmyene A, Bakry F, Ollitrault P, Froelicher Y (2011) Evidence for non-disomic inheritance in a citrus interspecific tetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata and C. limon using SSR markers and cytogenetic analysis. Plant Cell Rep 30(8):1415–1425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim S, Plagnol V, Hu TT, Toomajian C, Clark RM, Ossowski S, Ecker JR, Weigel D, Nordborg M (2007) Recombination and linkage disequilibrium in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Genet 39(9):1151–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Knight E, Greer E, Draeger T, Thole V, Reader S, Shaw P, Moore G (2010) Inducing chromosome pairing through premature condensation: analysis of wheat interspecific hybrids. Funct Integr Genomics 10(4):603–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Koehler C, Mittelsten OS, Erilova A (2010) The impact of the triploid block on the origin and evolution of polyploid plants. Trends Genet 26(3):142–148Google Scholar
  69. Leflon M, Grandont L, Eber F, Huteau V, Coriton O, Chelysheva L, Jenczewski E, Chevre AM (2010) Crossovers get a boost in brassica allotriploid and allotetraploid hybrids. Plant Cell 22(7):2253–2264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Leitch AR, Leitch IJ (2008) Genomic plasticity and the diversity of polyploid plants. Science 320(5875):481–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Li J, Das K, Fu G, Tong C, Li Y, Tobias C, Wu R (2010) Em algorithm for mapping quantitative trait Loci in multivalent tetraploids. Int J Plant Genomics 2010:216547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Li XC, Barringer BC, Barbash DA (2009) The pachytene checkpoint and its relationship to evolutionary patterns of polyploidization and hybrid sterility. Heredity 102(1):24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lim KB, Shen TM, Barba-Gonzalez R, Ramanna MS, Van Tuyl JM (2004) Occurrence of SDR 2 N-gametes in Lilium hybrids. Breed Sci 54(1):13–18Google Scholar
  74. Lohmiller LD, De Muyt A, Howard B, Offenberg HH, Heyting C, Grelon M, Anderson LK (2008) Cytological analysis of MRE11 protein during early meiotic prophase I in Arabidopsis and tomato. Chromosoma 117(3):277–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Loidl J (1989) Effects of elevated temperature on meiotic chromosome synapsis in Allium ursinum. Chromosoma 97(6):449–458Google Scholar
  76. Loidl J (1995) Meiotic chromosome pairing in triploid and tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 139(4):1511–1520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lukaszewski AJ, Kopecky D (2010) The Ph1 locus from wheat controls meiotic chromosome pairing in autotetraploid rye (Secale cereale L.). Cytogenet Genome Res 129(1–3):117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Luo ZW, Zhang RM, Kearsey MJ (2004) Theoretical basis for genetic linkage analysis in autotetraploid species. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 101(18):7040–7045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Luo ZW, Zhang Z, Zhang RM, Pandey M, Gailing O, Hattemer HH, Finkeldey R (2006) Modeling population genetic data in autotetraploid species. Genetics 172(1):639–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ma CX, Casella G, Shen ZJ, Osborn TC, Wu RL (2002) A unified framework for mapping quantitative trait loci in bivalent tetraploids using single-dose restriction fragments: a case study from alfalfa. Genome Res 12(12):1974–1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Madlung A, Tyagi AP, Watson B, Jiang HM, Kagochi T, Doerge RW, Martienssen R, Comai L (2005) Genomic changes in synthetic Arabidopsis polyploids. Plant J 41(2):221–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Martinez-Perez E, Shaw P, Aragon-Alcaide L, Moore G (2003) Chromosomes form into seven groups in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat as a prelude to meiosis. Plant J 36(1):21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Martinez-Perez E, Shaw P, Moore G (2001) The Ph1 locus is needed to ensure specific somatic and meiotic centromere association. Nature 411(6834):204–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mason AS, Nelson MN, Yan G, Cowling WA (2011) Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures. BMC Plant Biol 11:103Google Scholar
  85. Mather K (1936) Segregation and linkage in autotetraploids. J Genetics 32(2):287–314Google Scholar
  86. McKee BD (1996) The license to pair: identification of meiotic pairing sites in Drosophila. Chromosoma 105(3):135–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. McKim KS (2007) Meiotic pairing: a place to hook up. Curr Biol 17(5):R165–R168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Melamed-Bessudo C, Yehuda E, Stuitje AR, Levy AA (2005) A new seed-based assay for meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 43(3):458–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Menezes CB, Maluf WR, Azevedo SM, Faria MV, Nascimento IR, Nogueira DW, Gomes LA, Bearzoti E (2005) Inheritance of parthenocarpy in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Genet Mol Res 4(1):39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mercier R, Grelon M (2008) Meiosis in plants: ten years of gene discovery. Cytogenet Genome Res 120(3–4):281–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mercier R, Vezon D, Bullier E, Motamayor JC, Sellier A, Lefevre F, Pelletier G, Horlow C (2001) SWITCH1 (SWI1): a novel protein required for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion and for bivalent formation at meiosis. Genes Dev 15(14):1859–1871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mestiri I, Chague V, Tanguy AM, Huneau C, Huteau V, Belcram H, Coriton O, Chalhoub B, Jahier J (2010) Newly synthesized wheat allohexaploids display progenitor-dependent meiotic stability and aneuploidy but structural genomic additivity. New Phytol 186(1):86–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mezard C (2006) Meiotic recombination hotspots in plants. Biochem Soc Trans 34:531–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mezard C, Vignard J, Drouaud J, Mercier R (2007) The road to crossovers: plants have their say. Trends Genet 23(2):91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Moore G, Shaw P (2009) Improving the chances of finding the right partner. Curr Opin Genet Dev 19(2):99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Morrison JW, Rajhathy T (1960) Frequency of quadrivalents in autotetraploid plants. Nature 187(4736):528–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mursalimov SR, Deineko EV (2011) An ultrastructural study of cytomixis in tobacco pollen mother cells. Protoplasma 248(4):717–724Google Scholar
  98. Naranjo T, Corredor E (2004) Clustering of centromeres precedes bivalent chromosome pairing of polyploid wheats. Trends Plant Sci 9(5):214–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nelson MN, Nixon J, Lydiate DJ (2005) Genome-wide analysis of the frequency and distribution of crossovers at male and female meiosis in Sinapis alba L. (white mustard). Theor Appl Genet 111(1):31–43 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Nicolas SD, Leflon M, Liu Z, Eber F, Chelysheva L, Coriton O, Chevre AM, Jenczewski E (2008) Chromosome ‘speed dating’ during meiosis of polyploid Brassica hybrids and haploids. Cytogenet Genome Res 120(3–4):331–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Nicolas SD, Leflon M, Monod H, Eber F, Coriton O, Huteau V, Chevre AM, Jenczewski E (2009) Genetic regulation of meiotic cross-overs between related genomes in Brassica napus haploids and hybrids. Plant Cell 21(2):373–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nogler GA (1984) Gametophytic apomixis. In: Johri BM (ed) Embryology of angiosperms. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  103. Ortiz R (1997) Occurrence and inheritance of 2n pollen in Musa. Ann Bot 79(4):449–453Google Scholar
  104. Osman K, Higgins JD, Sanchez-Moran E, Armstrong SJ, Franklin F, Chris H (2011) Pathways to meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol 190(3):523–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ottaviano E, Sari Gorla M, Mulcahy DL (1990) Pollen selection: efficiency and monitoring. In: Ogita ZI, Markert CL (eds) Isozymes: structure, function, and use in biology and medicine. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 575–588Google Scholar
  106. Otto SP (2007) The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Cell 131(3):452–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ozkan H, Feldman M (2009) Rapid cytological diploidization in newly formed allopolyploids of the wheat (Aegilops-Triticum) group. Genome 52(11):926–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pagliarini MS (2000) Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility. Genet Mol Biol 23(4):997–1002Google Scholar
  109. Pandolfini T (2009) Seedless fruit production by hormonal regulation of fruit set. Nutrients 1(2):168–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Parisod C, Holderegger R, Brochmann C (2010) Evolutionary consequences of autopolyploidy. New Phytol 186(1):5–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Pawlowski WP, Cande WZ (2005) Coordinating the events of the meiotic prophase. Trends Cell Biol 15(12):674–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pawlowski WP (2010) Chromosome organization and dynamics in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 13(6):640–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pecinka A, Fang W, Rehmsmeier M, Levy Avraham A, Mittelsten Scheid O (2011) Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis. BMC Biol 9:24Google Scholar
  114. Pecrix Y, Rallo G, Folzer H, Cigna M, Gudin S, Le Bris M (2011) Polyploidization mechanisms: temperature environment can induce diploid gamete formation in Rosa sp. J Exp Bot 62(10):3587–3597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Peloquin SJ, Boiteux LS, Simon PW, Jansky SH (2008) A chromosome-specific estimate of transmission of heterozygosity by 2n gametes in potato. J Hered 99(2):177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ramsey J (2007) Unreduced gametes and neopolyploids in natural populations of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae). Heredity 98(3):143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ramsey J, Schemske DW (1998) Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:467–501Google Scholar
  118. Ramsey J, Schemske DW (2002) Neopolyploidy in flowering plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:589–639Google Scholar
  119. Ravi M, Marimuthu MP, Siddiqi I (2008) Gamete formation without meiosis in Arabidopsis. Nature 451(7182):1121–1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ricci GCL, Pagliarini MS, Valle CB (2010) Genome elimination during microsporogenesis in two pentaploid accessions of Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae). Genet Mol Res 9(4):2364–2371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ridout MS, Bell JA, Simpson DW (2001) Analysis of segregation data from selfed progeny of allopolyploids. Heredity 87:537–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Riley R, Chapman V (1958) Genetic control of the cytologically diploid behaviour of hexaploid wheat. Nature 182(4637):713–715Google Scholar
  123. Rose AM, Baillie DL (1979) Effect of temperature and parental age on recombination and nondisjunction in Caenorhanditis elegans. Genetics 92(2):409–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sakuno T, Watanabe Y (2009) Studies of meiosis disclose distinct roles of cohesion in the core centromere and pericentromeric regions. Chromosome Res 17(2):239–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sanchez-Moran E, Armstrong SJ, Santos JL, Franklin FCH, Jones GH (2002) Variation in chiasma frequency among eight accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 162(3):1415–1422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sanchez-Moran E, Osman K, Higgins JD, Pradillo M, Cunado N, Jones GH, Franklin FCH (2008) ASY1 coordinates early events in the plant meiotic recombination pathway. Cytogenet Genome Res 120(3–4):302–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Santos JL, Alfaro D, Sanchez-Moran E, Armstrong SJ, Franklin FC, Jones GH (2003) Partial diploidization of meiosis in autotetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 165(3):1533–1540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Scherthan H (2007) Telomere attachment and clustering during meiosis. Cell Mol Life Sci 64(2):117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Schoen I, Martens K (1998) DNA repair in ancient asexuals: a new solution to an old problem? J Nat Hist 32:943–948Google Scholar
  130. Schubert I, Shaw P (2011) Organization and dynamics of plant interphase chromosomes. Trends Plant Sci 16(5):273–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sharbel TF, Voigt ML, Corral JM, Galla G, Kumlehn J, Klukas C, Schreiber F, Vogel H, Rotter B (2010) Apomictic and sexual ovules of Boechera display heterochronic global gene expression patterns. Plant Cell 22(3):655–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sheehan MJ, Pawlowski WP (2009) Live imaging of rapid chromosome movements in meiotic prophase I in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(49):20989–20994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Simioni C, do Valle CB (2011) Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Crop Breed Appl Biotech 11(1):43–49Google Scholar
  134. Singhal VK, Kumar P (2008) Cytomixis during microsporogenesis in the diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, 1852 (Solanaceae). Comp Cytogenet 2(1):85–92Google Scholar
  135. Soltis DE, Soltis PS (1999) Polyploidy: recurrent formation and genome evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 14(9):348–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Spillane C, Curtis MD, Grossniklaus U (2004) Apomixis technology development-virgin births in farmers fields? Nat Biotechnol 22(6):687–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Stack SM, Anderson LK (2002) Crossing over as assessed by late recombination nodules is related to the pattern of synapsis and the distribution of early recombination nodules in maize. Chromosome Res 10(4):329–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Stift M, Reeve R, van Tienderen PH (2010) Inheritance in tetraploid yeast revisited: segregation patterns and statistical power under different inheritance models. J Evol Biol 23(7):1570–1578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Stift Marc, Berenos C, Kuperus P, van Tienderen PH (2008) Segregation models for disomic, tetrasomic and intermediate inheritance in tetraploids: a general procedure applied to Rorippa (Yellow cress) microsatellite data. Genetics 179(4):2113–2123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sun X, Zhang Y, Yang S, Chen JQ, Hohn B, Tian D (2008) Insertion DNA promotes ectopic recombination during meiosis in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Evol 25(10):2079–2083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sundstrom G, Larsson TA, Larhammar D (2008) Phylogenetic and chromosomal analyses of multiple gene families syntenic with vertebrate Hox clusters. BMC Evol Biol 8:254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sybenga J (1996) Chromosome pairing affinity and quadrivalent formation in polyploids: do segmental allopolyploids exist? Genome 39(6):1176–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Szadkowski E, Eber F, Huteau V, Lode M, Coriton O, Jenczewski E, Chevre AM (2011) Polyploid formation pathways have an impact on genetic rearrangements in resynthesized Brassica napus. New Phytol 191(3):884–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Szadkowski E, Eber F, Huteau V, Lode M, Huneau C, Belcram H, Coriton O, Manzanares-Dauleux MJ, Delourme R, King GJ et al (2010) The first meiosis of resynthesized Brassica napus, a genome blender. New Phytol 186(1):102–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Trelles-Sticken E, Loidl J, Scherthan H (2003) Increased ploidy and KAR3 and SIR3 disruption alter the dynamics of meiotic chromosomes and telomeres. J Cell Sci 116(12):2431–2442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. van Veen JE, Hawley RS (2003) Meiosis: when even two is a crowd. Curr Biol 13(21):R831–R833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Vizir IY, Korol AB (1990) Sex difference in recombination frequency in Arabidopsis. Heredity 65(3):379–383 Google Scholar
  148. von Wettstein D, Rasmussen SW, Holm PB (1984) The synaptonemal complex in genetic segregation. Annu Rev Genet 18:331–413Google Scholar
  149. Wang Y, Jha AK, Chen R, Doonan JH, Yang M (2010) Polyploidy-associated genomic instability in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genesis 48(4):254–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Watanabe K (1981) Studies on the control of diploid-like meiosis in polyploid taxa of Chrysanthemim japonese. Cytologia 46(3):459–498Google Scholar
  151. Weiss H, Maluszynska J (2000) Chromosomal rearrangement in autotetraploid plants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Hereditas 133(3):255–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Wijnker E, de Jong H (2008) Managing meiotic recombination in plant breeding. Trends Plant Sci 13(12):640–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Wu RL, Gallo-Meagher M, Littell RC, Zeng ZB (2001a) A general polyploid model for analyzing gene segregation in outcrossing tetraploid species. Genetics 159(2):869–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Wu SS, Wu RL, Ma CX, Zeng ZB, Yang MC, Casella G (2001b) A multivalent pairing model of linkage analysis in autotetraploids. Genetics 159(3):1339–1350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Youds JL, Boulton SJ (2011) The choice in meiosis: defining the factors that influence crossover or non-crossover formation. J Cell Sci 124(Pt 4):501–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Yousafzai FK, Al-Kaff N, Moore G (2010) The molecular features of chromosome pairing at meiosis: the polyploid challenge using wheat as a reference. Funct Integr Genomics 10(2):147–156PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Luise Zielinski
    • 1
  • Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid
    • 1
  1. 1.Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant BiologyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations