Arthroscopic-Assisted, Navigated Triplane Osteotomies of the Lower Extremity

  • Francisco Maculé
  • Luis Lozano


The osteotomy procedure has always relied on a visual approach that lacks scientific rigour. During surgery, the complex mathematical and empirical formulae which may be used when planning the intervention give way to a rough reckoning based on a line running from the centre of the femoral head to the second toe.


Tibial Plateau High Tibial Osteotomy Preoperative Planning Tibial Slope Angular Deformity 
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Conflict of Interests

The authors state that they have no conflict of interests and nor have they received any funding for the work reported in this chapter.


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Copyright information

© ESSKA 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Knee Surgery UnitUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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