Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Kinematic Evaluation

  • Stefano Zaffagnini
  • Simone Bignozzi
  • Nicola Lopomo
  • F. Iacono
  • M. P. Neri
  • Alberto Grassi
  • T. Roberti Di Sarsina
  • Maurilio Marcacci


CAS in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has now completed over 15 years of research. The first publications started in the second half of the 1990s [34]. The main goal of the navigated procedures was to improve the correct position of the graft, using anatomical references and graft isometry during the range of motion, considering that 70–80 % of the complications were due to malpositioned tunnels [10].


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Pivot Shift International Knee Documentation Committee Knee Laxity 
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Copyright information

© ESSKA 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Zaffagnini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Simone Bignozzi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Nicola Lopomo
    • 1
    • 4
  • F. Iacono
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. P. Neri
    • 1
  • Alberto Grassi
    • 1
  • T. Roberti Di Sarsina
    • 1
  • Maurilio Marcacci
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratorio di Biomeccanica e Innovazione TecnologicaIstituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica IIIIstituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Orthokey LLCLewesUSA
  4. 4.Laboratorio di NanoBiotecnologie – NaBiIstituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly

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