New Developments in Harmonized Landslide Susceptibility Mapping over Europe in the Framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy
In the context of the European Soil Thematic Strategy, and the formulation of a draft of a European framework directive devoted to the sustainable use of soil, landslides are recognized as one of the eight soil threats requiring harmonized spatial hazard assessments over the EU territory. The general framework for such assessments consists of a nested geographical approach based on “Tiers”, where a low-resolution (1:1 Million) evaluation (“Tier 1”) using already available pan-European datasets should enable the delineation of priority areas requiring more detailed assessments with additional data (“Tier 2”). In this contribution, we present new developments in the elaboration of a “Tier 1” generic landslide susceptibility evaluation based on a heuristic modelling approach exploiting the most important landslide conditioning factors. Extensive landslide locations available at small spatial scales have been collected and harmonized over the EU territory to be used for input parameter specification and model calibration, evaluation and classification. Since the analyzed area is highly complex in terms of climato-physiographic conditions controlling landslide occurrences, a preliminary landslide terrain differentiation is proposed consisting of eight calibration zones where specific predictor class weights have been allocated through a heuristic indexing approach. The spatially combined preliminary pan-European susceptibility estimate classifies 13 % of the EU territory as prone to landslides, thus requiring more detailed, quantitative inventory-based susceptibility evaluations (“Tier 2”).
KeywordsLandslides Susceptibility map Heuristic model Soil Thematic Strategy Continental scale
This work is part of the European Landslide Expert Group on ‘Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe’ coordinated by JRC Ispra since 2007, and part of the ICL-IPL project IPL-162 “Tier-based harmonized approach for landslide susceptibility mapping over Europe”. We like to thank the members of the European Landslide Expert Group (http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ library/themes/landslides/wg.html) for all the fruitful discussions.
We are highly indebted to the institutions sharing landslide location information with us and supporting this study. These are: Geologische Bundesanstalt, Austria (GBA, Nils Tilch); Hungarian Office for Mining and Geology (Tamás Oszvald); Czech Geological Survey (Dana Čápová); Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI, Ronnie Creighton); Geological Survey of Norway (NGU, Thierry Oppikofer and Reginald Hermanns); Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Greece (IGME, Eleftheria Poyiadji); Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI, Mats Öberg); Environment, Nature Energy Department, Flemish Government, Belgium (LNE, Liesbet Vanderkerckhove), Albanian Geological Survey (AGS, Mimoza Jusufati); Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Germany (LfULG, Peter Dommaschk); Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, University of Lisbon, Portugal (IGOT, José Luis Zêzere); Federal Office for the Environment, Switzerland (BAFU, Hugo Raetzo and Bernard Loup).
- BGR (2005) Soil regions map of the European Union and adjacent countries 1:5M (version 2.0). Special publication, Ispra. EU catalogue number S.P.I.05.134Google Scholar
- EC (2006a) Thematic strategy for soil protection. COM(2006)231 final. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- EC (2006b) Proposal for a directive of the European parliament and of the council establishing a framework for the protection of soil and amending directive 2004/35/EC. COM(2006)232 final. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- Eckelmann W, Baritz, R, Bialousz S, Bielek P, Carre F, Houskova B, Jone RJA, Kibblewhite MG, Kozak J, Le Bas C, Toth G, Varallyay G, Yli Halla M, Zupan M (2006) Common criteria for risk area identification according to soil threats. European oil Bureau Research Report no. 20, EUR 22185 EN. Office for official publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
- Günther A, Reichenbach P, Hervás J (2008) Approaches for delineating areas susceptible to landslides in the framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy. In: Proceedings of the first world landslide forum, Tokyo, 18–21 Nov 2008, pp 235–238Google Scholar
- Hervás J (2007) Guidelines for mapping areas at risk of landslides in Europe. In: Proceedings of the experts meeting, 23–24 Oct 2007, Ispra, Italy. JRC Report EUR 23093 EN, Office for official publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 53pGoogle Scholar
- Hervás J, Günther A, Reichenbach P, Malet J-P, Van Den Eeckhaut M (2010) Harmonised approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping in Europe. In: Malet JP, Glade T, Casagli N (eds) Proceedings of the international conference mountain risks: bringing science to society, Florence, Italy, 24–26 Nov 2010. CERG Editions, Strasbourg, pp 501–505Google Scholar
- Malet JP, Thiery Y, Puissant A, Hervás J, Günther A, Grandjean G (2009) Landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:1M scale over France: exploratory results with a heuristic model. In: Proceedings of the international conference on landslide processes: from geomorphologic mapping to dynamic modelling. A tribute to Prof. Dr. Theo van Asch, Strasbourg, France, 6–7 Feb 2009, pp 315–320Google Scholar
- Malet JP, Puissant A, Mathieu A, Van Den Eeckhaut M, Fressard M (2011) Integrating spatial multi-criteria evaluation and expert knowledge for national-scale landslide susceptibility analysis: application to France. In: Proceedings of the 2nd world landslide forum, Rome, 3–7 Oct 2011 (this volume)Google Scholar
- Reuter HI (2009) A Europe-wide digital elevation model based on SRTM and Russian topographic contours. Data set and documentation for the contract 2007-4500049350. BGR HannoverGoogle Scholar
- Van Den Eeckhaut M, Hervás M, Jaedicke C, Malet JP, Picarelli L (2010) Calibration of logistic regression coefficients from limited landslide inventory data for European-wide landslide susceptibility modelling. In: Malet JP, Glade T, Casagli N (eds) Proceedings of the international conference mountain risks: bringing science to society, Florence, Italy, 24–26 Nov 2010. CERG Editions, Strasbourg, pp 515–521Google Scholar
- Van Den Eeckhaut M, Hervás J, Montanarella L (2011) Landslide databases in Europe: analysis and recommendations for interoperability and harmonization. In: Proceedings of the 2nd world landslide forum, Rome, 3–7 Oct 2011 (this volume)Google Scholar