Advertisement

Protecting the Environment in War: Military Guidelines

  • Arthur H. Westing
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice book series (BRIEFSPIONEER, volume 1)

Abstract

A state’s (nation’s) military manuals and rules of engagement (often publicly available) serve to guide the armed forces of that state during both their peacetime and wartime actions. The constraints contained in those documents derive, of course, to a greater or lesser degree from the existing Law of War (International Humanitarian Law and related International Arms Control and Disarmament Law), as outlined earlier (cf. Chap. 8). Interestingly enough, in various instances a state may lean on the Law of War even if it is not a state party to one or more of the relevant multilateral instruments.

Keywords

Armed Force Environmental Constraint Armed Conflict United Nations Environment Programme North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ACDA. 1997. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers 1996. 25th edn. Washington: US Arms Control & Disarmament Agency, 192 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Falk, R.A. 1984. Proposed convention on the crime of ecocide. In: Westing, A.H. (ed.). Environmental Warfare: a Technical, Policy and Legal Appraisal. London: Taylor & Francis, 107 pp: pp 45–49.Google Scholar
  3. Falk, R. [A.]. 2000. The inadequacy of the existing legal approach to environmental protection in wartime. In: Austin, J.E., & Bruch, C.E. (eds). The Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 691 pp: pp 137–155 (Chap. 4).Google Scholar
  4. Goldblat, J. 1994. Arms Control: a Guide to Negotiations and Agreements. London: Sage Publications, 772 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Goodman, S.W. 1994. DoD’s [US Department of Defense’s] vision for environmental security. Defense Issues (Washington) 9(24):1–8.Google Scholar
  6. Goodman, S.[W.] 1997. United States action in the field of security and the environment. In: IRIS (ed.). Deuxièmes Conférences Stratégiques Annuelles de l’IRIS [Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques]; Paris: Documentation Française, 335 pp: pp 223–232.Google Scholar
  7. Grunawalt, R.J. 1997. The JCS [Joint Chiefs of Staff] Standing Rules of Engagement: a Judge Advocate’s primer. Air Force Law Review (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, USA) 42:245–258.Google Scholar
  8. ICRC. 1993. Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict. Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 6 pp. Google Scholar
  9. Reprinted in: New York: United Nations General Assembly Document No. A/49/323 (19 Aug 94), 53 pp: pp 49–53.Google Scholar
  10. Reprinted in: American Journal of International Law (Washington) 89:641–644. 1995.Google Scholar
  11. ICRC. 1995. Law of War: Prepared for Action: a Guide for Professional Soldiers. Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, Division for Dissemination to the Armed Forces, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  12. IUCN & ICEL. 1995. Draft Convention on the Prohibition of Hostile Military Activities in Protected Areas. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) -&- International Council on Environmental Law (ICEL), 5 pp.Google Scholar
  13. NATO. 1996. Environmental Guidelines for the Military Sector. Brussels: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society, 54 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Parsons, R.J. 1998. The fight to save the planet: U.S. armed forces, “greenkeeping,” and enforcement of the law pertaining to environmental protection during armed conflict. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review (Washington) 10:441–500.Google Scholar
  15. Quinn, J.P., Evans, R.T., & Boock, M.J. 2000. United States Navy Development of operational-environmental doctrine. In: Austin, J.E., & Bruch, C.E. (eds). Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 691 pp: pp 156–170 (Chap. 5).Google Scholar
  16. Reisman, W.M., & Leitzau, W.K. 1991. Moving international law from theory to practice: the role of military manuals in effectuating the law of armed conflict. In: Robertson, H.B., Jr (ed.). Law of Naval Operations. Newport, RI, USA: Naval War College Press, International Law Studies, Volume 64, 540 pp: pp 1–18.Google Scholar
  17. Renew America (ed.). 1995. Today America’s Forces Protect the Environment. Washington: Renew America, 49 pp,Google Scholar
  18. Roach, J.A. 1997. The laws of war and the protection of the environment. Environment & Security (Quebec) 1(2):53–67.Google Scholar
  19. Roberts, A. 2000. The Law of War and environmental damage. In: Austin, J.E., & Bruch, C.E. (eds). Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 691 pp: pp 47–86 (Chap. 2).Google Scholar
  20. Schmitt, M.N. 1997-1998. Green war: an assessment of the environmental law of international armed conflict. Yale Journal of International Law (New Haven, CT, USA) 22:1–109.Google Scholar
  21. Sivard, R.L. 1996. World Military and Social Expenditures 1996. 16th edn. Washington: World Priorities, 56 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, D. 1997. State of War and Peace Atlas. 3rd edn. London: Penguin Books, 128 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Tarasofsky, R.G. 1993. Legal protection of the environment during international armed conflict. Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (Leiden) 24:17–79.Google Scholar
  24. Tillema, H.K. 1989. Foreign overt military interventions in the nuclear age. Journal of Peace Research (Oslo) 26:179–196,419–420.Google Scholar
  25. UN. 1993. Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Statement of Forest Principles. New York: United Nations, Publication No. DPI/1344 (Apr 93), 294 pp.Google Scholar
  26. UNCSD. 1994. Commission on Sustainable Development: Report on the Second Session (16-27 May 1994). New York: United Nations Economic & Social Council, Official Records, 1994, Supplement No. 13, Document No. E/1994/33/Rev.1-E/CN.17/1994/20/Rev.1, Chap.1, paragraphs 186–187.Google Scholar
  27. UNEP. 1993. Application of Environmental Norms by Military Establishments. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council Decision No. 17/5 (21 May 93), 1 p.Google Scholar
  28. UNEP. 1995a. Application of Environmental Norms by Military Establishments. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council Decision No. 18/29 (25 May 95), 1 p.Google Scholar
  29. UNEP. 1995b. Application of Environmental Norms by Military Establishments: Report of the Executive Director. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Document No. UNEP/GC.18/6 + Add.1 (27 Feb & 14 May 95), 3 + 8 pp.Google Scholar
  30. UNEP. 1995c. Meeting on Military Activities and the Environment, Linköping, 27-30 June 1995: Background Paper. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Document No. UNEP/MIL/2 (13 Jun 95), 17 pp.Google Scholar
  31. UNEP. 1995d. Meeting on Military Activities and the Environment, Linköping, 27-30 June 1995: Report of the Meeting. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Document No. UNEP/MIL/3 (7 Jul 95), 36 pp.Google Scholar
  32. UNEP. 1996a. Sub-regional Meeting on Military Activities and the Environment, Bangkok, 26-28 June 1996: Report of the Meeting. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Document No. UNEP/MIL/SEA/1 (28 Jun 96), 50 pp.Google Scholar
  33. UNEP. 1996b. Sub-regional Meeting on Military Activities and the Environment, Bangkok, 29-31 October 1996: Report of the Meeting. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, Document No. UNEP/MIL/SA/1 (15 Nov 96), 64 pp.Google Scholar
  34. UNGA. 1995. General and Complete Disarmament: Observance of Environmental Norms in the Drafting and Implementation of Agreements on Disarmament and Arms Control. New York: United Nations General Assembly, Resolution No. 50/70 M (12 Dec 95), 1 p. [157 (85 %) in favor, 2 abstentions, 4 against, 22 absent = 185.]Google Scholar
  35. UNGA. 1996. General and Complete Disarmament: Observance of Environmental Norms in the Drafting and Implementation of Agreements on Disarmament and Arms Control. New York: United Nations General Assembly, Resolution No. 51/45 E (10 Dec 96), 2 pp. [138 (75 %) in favor, 27 abstentions, 4 against, 16 absent = 185.]Google Scholar
  36. UNGA. 1997. General and Complete Disarmament: Observance of Environmental Norms in the Drafting and Implementation of Agreements on Disarmament and Arms Control. New York: United Nations General Assembly, Resolution No. 52/38 E (9 Dec 97), 1 p. [160 (86 %) in favor, 6 abstentions, 0 against, 19 absent = 185.]Google Scholar
  37. USDoA. 1993. Operational Law Handbook. Charlottesville, VA, USA: US Department of the Army, Judge Advocate General’s School, Report No. JA-422(94), 281 pp.Google Scholar
  38. USDoD. 1996. Environmental Security. Washington: US Department of Defense, Directive No. 4715.1 (24 Feb 96), 6 + 1+2 pp.Google Scholar
  39. US Navy, Marine Corps, & Coast Guard. 1995. Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations. [3rd edn.]. Washington: US Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Publication No. NWP 1–14 M (formerly NWP 9 (Rev. A))/FMFM 1-10/COMDTPUB P5800.7, [113] pp.Google Scholar
  40. Warrick, J. 1998. Pentagon green light: it secured exemption in warming treaty. International Herald Tribune (Paris) 1998(35,725):10. 10–11 Jan 98.Google Scholar
  41. Westing, A.H. 1980. Warfare in a Fragile World: Military Impact on the Human Environment. London: Taylor & Francis, 249 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Westing, A.H. 1982. War as a human endeavor: the high-fatality wars of the twentieth century. Journal of Peace Research (Oslo) 19(3):261–270.Google Scholar
  43. Westing, A.H. 1985. Towards eliminating the scourge of chemical war: reflections on the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the Geneva Protocol. Bulletin of Peace Proposals [now Security Dialogue] (Oslo) 16(2):117–120.Google Scholar
  44. Westing, A.H. 1989. Proposal for an international treaty for protection against nuclear devastation. Bulletin of Peace Proposals [now Security Dialogue] (Oslo) 20(4):435–436.Google Scholar
  45. Westing, A.H. 1992a. Environmental dimensions of maritime security. In: Goldblat, J. (ed.). Maritime Security: the Building of Confidence. Geneva: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, Document No. UNIDIR/92/89, 159 pp: pp 91–102.Google Scholar
  46. Westing, A.H. 1992b. Protected natural areas and the military. Environmental Conservation (Cambridge, UK) 19(4):343–348.Google Scholar
  47. Westing, A.H. 1993. Global need for environmental education. Environment, (Washington) 35(7):4–5,45.Google Scholar
  48. Westing, A.H. 1996. Core values for sustainable development. Environmental Conservation (Cambridge, UK) 23(3):218–225.Google Scholar
  49. Westing, A.H. 1997. Environmental protection from wartime damage: the role of international law. In: Gleditsch, N.P. (ed.). Conflict and the Environment. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 598 pp: pp 535–553.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Security & EducationWesting Associates in EnvironmentPutneyUSA

Personalised recommendations