Superposition, Entanglement and Other Oddities
For a fundamental understanding of quantum mechanics, superposition and entanglement of quantum states are essential issues. These phenomena are explained by means of examples including the scattering of two identical particles. Special focus is on the quantum mechanical measurement process and on the disappearance of double slit interferences by gaining “Which Way” information. Using the density matrix formalism, open quantum systems and dephasing of coherent quantum states are discussed. This includes a short consideration of Schrödinger’s cat paradox. Important applications in the field of quantum information are presented, in particular the realization of a quantum bit by semiconductor quantum dots.