Conspicuous and/or Abnormal Head Shape
Abnormal head shape attracts attention of parents and physicians mainly in neonates and infants because the hair does not cover the deformity as later in life. On the other hand, the family becomes used to the abnormal head shape with time.
After discussion of the head that is too large in chapter “macrocrania,” remain the causes of deviation from the normal shape of the neurocranium such as abnormal proportions or right-left asymmetry without or with involvement of the facial skeleton.
Because craniosynostoses (premature closure of one or more sutures) are in the form of interest due to the possibility of surgical correction, the other causes of conspicuous or abnormal head shape are explained in the differential diagnosis of the single craniosynostoses and listed in Table 4.1.
KeywordsHead Shape Skull Defect Lambdoid Suture Sagittal Synostosis Syndromic Craniosynostosis
General: Genetics, Functional Loss, Hydrocephalus, Radiological Imaging
Section 4.1 Single-Suture Synostosis, Functional Evaluation, Intracranial Pressure
Section 4.1.1 Sagittal Synostosis
- Schmelzer RE, Perlyn CA, Kane AA, Pilgram TK, Govier D, Marsh JL (2007) Identifying reproducible patterns of calvarial dysmorphology in nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis may affect operative intervention and outcome assessment. Plast Reconstr Surg 119:1546–1552, Comment in: Plast Reconstr Surg (2008) 121:335–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Section 4.1.2 Coronal Synostosis
- Ehret FW, Whelan MF, Ellenbogen RG, Cunningham ML, Gruss JS (2004) Differential diagnosis of trapezoid-shaped head. Childs Nerv Syst 41:13–19Google Scholar
Section 4.1.3 Metopic Synostosis
Section 4.1.4 Lambdoid Synostosis
Section 4.2 Pansynostosis
Section 4.3 Syndromic Synostosis
- Jarrahy R, Kawamoto HK, Keagle J, Dickinson BP, Katchikian HV, Bradley JP (2009) Three tenets for staged correction of Kleeblattschädel or cloverleaf skull deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg 123:210–318Google Scholar
- Salyer KE (2000) Distraction osteogenesis vs. craniofacial osteotomy. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 28(Suppl 1):62Google Scholar