Cryptorchidism, Empty Scrotum

  • Georges L. Kaiser


Cryptorchidism is a frequent disorder: 2–5 % of the neonates born at term and about 20 % of those with a birth weight <2,500 g have cryptorchidism (i.e., bilateral altogether in 45 %), and still 1 % at the age of 1 year and somewhat less after the end of growth. Recently, the prevalence of cryptorchidism is increasing in some developed countries. Its clinical significance is many and diverse:
  • Possible impairment of fertility (reduced germ cell number at birth or general depletion of germ and to a lesser degree of Leydig cells after birth and specifically loss from 6 months to 4 years of age [due to maternal lifestyle or exposition to diethylstilbestrol and factors related to failing descent]).

  • Increased risk of testicular malignancy (2.75–8 times increased risk of neoplasm for the undescended testis).

  • Pathologies which become visible and palpable in descended testes, for example, testicular torsion # or tumor, may be hidden.

  • Psychological effect on the developed young man is possible.


Inguinal Hernia Undescended Testis Testicular Volume Testicular Torsion Testicular Vessel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


General: Occurrence, Clinical Skills, Differential Diagnosis

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Sections 31.3–31.4

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georges L. Kaiser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Surgery InselspitalUniversity of BerneBerneSwitzerland

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