• Georges L. Kaiser


Every discoloration of urine is worrying the parents and involved schoolchildren because imagination of hemorrhage is connected with it, and the family doctor is contacted quickly.

Confusion may occur if the discolored fluid corresponds to a lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, a perigenital or perianal injury, or a genital bleeding in girls. It concerns specifically infants and small children in whom discolored nappies (diapers) and panties may be the only source of informations.

If urine is discolored, the question arises whether change in color is caused by components of food, drugs, etc., hemo- or myoglobinuria, or true hematuria. Because the stripe test cannot differentiate between the last two categories and in case of hematuria, false-positive as well as false-negative results may be obtained, evaluation of urine sediment is indispensable: < 3 erythrocytes (ec) per visual field or mm3 are normal, and > 10 ec per mm3 are pathological and called microscopic hematuria if hematuria is not recognizable by the naked eye.


Urinary Tract Infection Microscopic Hematuria Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Renal Vein Thrombosis Pediatric Urology 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georges L. Kaiser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Surgery InselspitalUniversity of BerneBerneSwitzerland

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