Symptoms and Signs of Respiratory Organs in Infants and Older Children

  • Georges L. Kaiser


The disorders of respiratory organs in infants and older children with pediatric surgical significance may be arranged in six categories as follows:
  • Malformations or acquired disorders with similar presentation that become apparent in the neonatal period as well as later in childhood

  • Malformations or acquired disorders with similar presentation that become apparent usually beyond the neonatal period or early infancy

  • Thoracic injuries and foreign body aspiration and ingestion

  • Complications of inflammatory lung diseases

  • Parasitic diseases of the lung

  • Neoplastic diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract


Neonatal Period Hydatid Cyst Spontaneous Pneumothorax Lung Abscess Pulmonary Sequestration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


General: Transfusion Related Lung Injury, Thoracoscopy, Lung Transplantation

  1. Sanchez R, Toy P (2005) Transfusion related acute lung injury: a pediatric perspective. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45:248–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Speich R, Nicod LP, Aubert JD, Spiliopoulos A, Wellinger J, Robert JH, Stocker R, Zalunardo M, Gasche-Soccal P, Boehler A, Weder W (2004) Ten years of lung transplantation in Switzerland: results of the Swiss lung transplant registry. Swiss Med Wkly 134:18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Tsao K, St Peter SD, Sharp SW, Nair A, Andrews WS, Sharp RJ, Snyder CL, Ostlie DJ, Holcomb GW (2008) Current application of thoracoscopy in children. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 18:131–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 10.1

  1. Gokhale J, Selbst SM (2009) Chest pain and chest wall deformity. Pediatr Clin North Am 56:49–65, xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Selbst SM, Ruddy RM, Clark BJ, Henretig FM, Santulli T Jr (1988) Pediatric chest pain: a prospective study. Pediatrics 82:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar

Section 10.2.1: Pulmonary Sequestration

  1. Gezer S, Tastepe I, Sirmali M, Findik G, Türüt H, Kaya S, Karaoglanoglu N, Cetin G (2007) Pulmonary sequestration: a single-institutional series composed of 27cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 133:955–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kang M, Khandelwal N, Ojili V, Rao KL, Rana SS (2006) Multidetector CT angiography in pulmonary sequestration. J Comput Assist Tomogr 30:926–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Morikawa N, Kuroda T, Honna T, Kitano Y, Fuchimoto Y, Terawaki K, Kawasaki K, Koinuma G, Matsuoka K, Saeki M (2005) Congenital bronchial atresia in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg 40:1822–1826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 10.2.2: Bronchiectasis

  1. Banjar HH (2007) Clinical profile of Saudi children with bronchiectasis. Indian J Pediatr 74:149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Karadag B, Karakoc F, Ersu R, Kut A, Bakac S, Dagli E (2005) Non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis in children: a persisting problem in developing countries. Respiration 72:233–238, Comment in: Respiration (2005) 72:225–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Otgün I, Karnak I, Tanyel FC, Senocak ME, Büyükpamukcu N (2004) Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis in children. J Pediatr Surg 39:1532–1536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sirmali M, Karasu S, Türüt H, Gezer S, Kaya S, Tastepe I, Karaoglanoglu N (2007) Surgical management of bronchiectasis in childhood. Eur J CardiothoracSurg31:120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Tsao PC, Lin CY (2002) Clinical spectrum of bronchiectasis in children. Acta Paediatr Taiwan 43:271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar

Section 10.2.3: Spontaneous Pneumothorax

  1. Amin R, Noone PG, Ratjen F (2009) Chemical pleurodesis versus surgical intervention for persistent and recurrent pneumothoraces in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2):CD007481Google Scholar
  2. Bialas RC, Weiner TM, Phillips JD (2008) Video-assisted thoracic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax in children: is there an optimal technique? J Pediatr Surg 43:2151–2155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caceres M, Ali SZ, Braud R, Weiman D, Garrett HE Jr (2008) Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a comparative study and review of the literature. Ann Thorac Surg 86:862–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chambers A, Scarci M (2009) In patients with first-episode primary spontaneous pneumothorax is video-assisted thoracoscopy superior to tube thoracostomy alone in terms of time to resolution of pneumothorax and incidence of recurrence? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 9:1003–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiu CY, Wong KS, Yao TC, Huang JL (2005) Asthmatic versus non-asthmatic spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 23:19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. de Lorimier AA (1998) Respiratory problems related to the airway and lung. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (eds) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  7. de Perrot M, Deléaval J, Robert J, Spiliopoulos A (2000) Spontaneous hemopneumothorax – results of conservative treatment. Swiss Surg 6:62–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Even L, Heno N, Talmon Y, Samet E, Zonis Z, Kugelman A (2005) Diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children: a prospective study. J Pediatr Surg 40:1122–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guimaraes CV, Donnelly LF, Warner BW (2007) CT findings for blebs and bullae in children with spontaneous pneumothorax and comparison with findings in normal age-matched controls. Pediatr Radiol 37:879–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nathan N, Guilbert J, Larroquet M, Lenoir M, Clement A, Epaud R (2010) Efficacy of blebs detection for preventive surgery in children’s idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax. World J Surg 34:185–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Poenaru D, Yazbeck S, Murphy S (1994) Primary spontaneous pneumothorax in children. J Pediatr Surg 29:1183–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Reynolds M (1998) Disorders of the thoracic cavity and pleura and infections of the lung, pleura, and mediastinum. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (ed) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  13. Robinson PD, Cooper P, Ranganathan SC (2009) Evidence-based management of paediatric primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Paediatr Respir Rev 10:110–117; quiz 117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sections 10.3.1–10.3.6: Thoracic Injuries

  1. Cheli M, Alberti D, Adriana T, Zaranko E, Colusso M, Arnoldi R, Codazzi D, Locatelli G (2009) Successful bleeding control by a combined conventional surgical approach and video-assisted surgery: a case report. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 15:253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cullen ML (2001) Pulmonary and respiratory complications of pediatric trauma. Respir Care Clin N Am 7:59–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frommelt PC, Frommelt MA (2004) Congenital coronary artery anomalies. Pediatr Clin North Am 51:1273–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Maguire S, Mann M, John N, Ellaway B, Sibert JR, Kemp AM, Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group (2006) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in children? A systematic review. Child Abuse Negl 30:739–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nakayama DK, Ramenofsky ML, Rowe MI (1989) Chest injuries in childhood. Ann Surg 210:770–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Neal MD, Sippey M, Gaines BA, Hackam DJ (2009) Presence of pneumomediastinum after blunt trauma in children: what does it really mean? J Pediatr Surg 44:1322–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ramirez RM, Cureton EL, Ereso AQ, Kwan RO, Dozier KC, Sadjadi J, Bullard MK, Liu TH, Victorino GP (2009) Single-contrast computed tomography for the triage of patients with penetrating torso trauma. J Trauma 67:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rodgers BM, McGahren ED III (1998) Laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and thoracoscopy. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (eds) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  9. Roux P, Fisher RM (1992) Chest injuries in children: an analysis of 100 cases of blunt chest trauma from motor vehicle accidents. J Pediatr Surg 27:551–555Google Scholar
  10. Samarasekera SP, Mikocka-Walus A, Butt W, Cameron P (2009) Epidemiology of major paediatric chest trauma. J Paediatr Child Health 45:676–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Tsitouridis I, Tsinoglou K, Tsandiridis C, Papastergiou C, Bintoudi A (2007) Traumatic pulmonary pseudocysts: CT findings. J Thorac Imaging 22:247–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wesson DE (1998) Thoracic injuries. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (eds) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  13. Wylie J, Morrison GC, Nalk K, Kotylak TB, Fraser DD, Kornecki A (2009) Lung contusion in children – early computed tomography versus radiography. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:643–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 10.4: Cardiovascular Injuries

  1. Allison ND, Anderson CM, Shah SK, Lally KP, Hayes-Jordan A, Tsao KJ, Andrassy RJ, Cox CS Jr (2009) Outcomes of truncal vascular injuries in children. J Pediatr Surg 44:1958–1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajor G, Bijata W, Szczeklik M, Bohosiewicz J, Bochenek A, Daab M (2005) Traumatic rupture of the aorta in adolescence – description of two cases. Eur J Pediatr Surg 15:287–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Grapow MTR, Lampert FM, Handschin R, Bremerich J, Eckstein F, Carrel T (2009) Rezidivierende Synkope und Thoraxschmerz bei einem jugendlichen Fuss­ballspie-ler. Schweiz Med Forum 9:695–697Google Scholar
  4. Link MS, Bir C, Dau N, Madias C, Estes NAM 3rd, Maron BJ (2008) Commentary protecting our children from the consequences of chest blows on the playing field: a time for science over marketing. Pediatrics 122:437–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Maron BJ, Gohman TE, Kyle SB et al (2002) Clinical profile and spectrum of commotio cordis. JAMA 287:1142–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Vasudevan AR, Kabinoff GS, Keltz TN et al (2003) Blunt chest trauma producing acute myocardial infarction in a rugby player. Lancet 362:370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 10.5: Foreign Body Aspiration

  1. Bhat KV, Hedge JS, Nagalotimath US, Patil GC (2010) Evaluation of computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy in paediatric tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration. J Laryngol Otol 29:1–5Google Scholar
  2. Cohen S, Avital A, Godfrey S, Gross M, Kerem E, Springer C (2009) Suspected foreign body inhalation in children: what are the indications for bronchoscopy? J Pediatr 155:276–280, Comment in: J Pediatr (2010) 156:690–691; author reply 691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. de Sousa ST, Ribeiro VS, de Menezes Filho JM, dos Santos AM, Barbieri MA, de Figueiredo Neto JA (2009) Foreign body aspiration in children and adolescents: experience of a Brazilian referral center. J Bras Pneumol 35:653–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Girardi G, Contador AM, Castro-Rodriguez JA (2004) Two new radiological findings to improve the diagnosis of bronchial foreign-body aspiration in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 38:261–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Göktas O, Snidero S, Jahnke V, Passali D, Gregori D (2010) Foreign body aspiration in children: field report of a German hospital. Pediatr Int 52:100–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Karakoc F, Cakir E, Ersu R, Uyan ZS, Colak B, Karadag B, Kiyan G, Dagli T, Dagli E (2007) Late diagnosis of foreign body aspiration in children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krugman SD, Lantz PE, Sinal S, De Jong AR, Coffman K (2007) Forced suffocation of infants with baby wipes: a previously undescribed form of child abuse. Child Abuse Negl 31:615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li Y, Wu W, Yang X, Li J (2009) Treatment of 38 cases of foreign body aspiration in children causing life-threatening complications. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:1624–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ludemann JP, Riding KH (2007) Choking on pins, needles and a blowdart: aspiration of sharp, metallic foreign bodies secondary to careless behaviour in seven adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71:307–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mani N, Soma M, Massey S, Albert D, Bailey CM (2009) Removal of inhaled foreign bodies – middle of the night or the next morning? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:1058–1089, Comment in: Int J Pediatr Otorhi­nolaryngol (2010) 74:104; author reply 104–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Riess KP, Cogbill TH, Patel NY, Lambert PJ, Mathiason MA (2007) Tracheal rupture in a child with blunt chest injury. J Trauma 63:1021–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Roh JL, Lee JH (2006) Spontaneous tracheal rupture after severe coughing in a 7-year-old boy. Pediatrics 118:e224–e227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Roux P, Fisher RM (1992) Chest injuries in children: an analysis of 100 cases of blunt chest trauma from motor vehicle accidents. J Pediatr Surg 27:551–555Google Scholar
  14. Sammer M, Wang E, Blackmore CC, Burdick TR, Hollingworth W (2007) Indeterminate CT ­angiography in blunt thoracic trauma: is CT angiography enough? AJR Am J Roentgenol 189:603–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Saquib Mallick M, Rauf Khan A, Al-Bassam A (2005) Late presentation of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children. J Trop Pediatr 51:145–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schimpl G, Schneider U (1996) Traumatic pneumatoceles in an infant: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr Surg 6:104–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shin SM, Kim WS, Cheon JE, Jung BJ, Kim IO, Yeon KM (2009) CT in children with suspected residual foreign body in airway after bronchoscopy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 192:1744–1751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shlizerman L, Mazzawi S, Rakover Y, Ashkenazi D (2010) Foreign body aspiration in children: the effects of delayed diagnosis. Am J Otolaryngol 31:320–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shubha AM, Das K (2009) Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:1385–1389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sirmali M, Türüt H, Kisacik E, Findik G, Kaya S, Tastepe I (2005) The relationship between time of admittance and complications in paediatric tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration. Acta Chir Belg 105:631–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Tomaske M, Gerber AC, Stocker S, Weiss M (2006) Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in childrenz –diagnostic value of symptoms and signs. Swiss Med Wkly 136:533–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tovar JA (2008) The lung and pediatric trauma. Semin Pediatr Surg 17:53–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Weissberg D, Weissberg-Kasav D (2008) Foreign bodies in pleura and chest wall. Ann Thorac Surg 86:958–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 10.6.1: Pleural Empyema

  1. Avansino JR, Goldman B, Sawin RS, Flum DR (2005) Primary operative versus nonoperative therapy for pediatric empyema: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 115:1652–1659, Comment in: Pediatrics (2006) 117:1462–1463 and 117:261–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bishay M, Short M, Shah K, Nagraj S, Arul S, Parikh D, Jawaheer G (2009) Efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in managing childhood empyema; a large single center study. J Pediatr Surg 44:337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calder A, Owens CM (2009) Imaging of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in children. Pediatr Radiol 39:527–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carey JA, Hamilton JR, Spencer DA, Gould K, Hasan A (1998) Empyema thoracis: a role for open thoracotomy and decortication. Arch Dis Child 79:510–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gustafson RA, Murray GF, Warden HE, Hill RC (1990) Role of lung decortication in symptomatic empyemas in children. Ann Thorac Surg 49:940–946, discussion 946–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kokoska ER, Chen MK, Committee New Technology (2009) Position paper on video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery as treatment of pediatric empyema. J Pediatr Surg 44:289–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Li ST, Tancredi DJ (2010) Empyema hospitalizations increased in US children despite pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics 125:26–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Roberts JE, Bezack BJ, Winger DI, Pollack S, Shah RA, Cataletto M, Katz DS, Montoya-Iraheta C, Schroeder SA, Quintos-Alagheband ML (2008) Association between parapneumonic effusion and pericardial effusion in a pediatric cohort. Pediatrics 122:e1231–e1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Shamsuzzaman SM, Hashiguchi Y (2002) Thoracic amebiasis. Clin Chest Med 23:479–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sharif K, Alton H, Clarke J, Desai M, Morland B, Parikh D (2006) Paediatric thoracic tumours presenting as empyema. Pediatr Surg Int 22:1009–1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. St Peter SD, Tsao K, Spilde TL, Keckler SJ, Harrison C, Jackson MA, Sharp SW, Andrews WS, Rivard DC, Doug C, Morello FP, Frank P, Holcomb GW 3rd, Ostlie DJ (2009) Thoracoscopic decortication vs tube thoracostomy with fibrinolysis for empyema in children: a prospective, randomized trial. J Pediatr Surg 44:106–111; discussion 111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tönz M, Ris HB, Casaulta C, Kaiser G (2000) Is there a place for thoracoscopic debridement in the treatment of empyema in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg 10:88–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sections 10.6.2–10.6.3: Lung Abscess and Pneumatocele

  1. Al-Saleh S, Grasemann H, Cox P (2008) Necrotizing pneumonia complicated by early and late pneumatoceles. Can Respir J 15:129–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayed AK, Al-Rowayeh A (2005) Lung resection in children for infectious pulmonary diseases. Pediatr Surg Int 21:604–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caksen H, Oztürk MK, Uzüm K, Yüksel S, Ustünbas HB (2000) Pulmonary complications in patients with staphylococcal sepsis. Pediatr Int 42:268–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan PC, Huang LM, Wu PS, Chang PY, Yang TT, Lu CY, Lee PI, Chen JM, Lee CY, Chang LY (2005) Clinical management and outcome of childhood lung abscess: a 16-year experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 38:183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cowles RA, Lelli JL Jr, Takayasu J, Coran AG (2002) Lung resection in infants and children with pulmonary infections refractory to medical therapy. J Pediatr Surg 37:643–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Imamoglu M, Cay A, Kosucu P, Ozedmir O, Cobanoglu U, Orhan F, Akyol A, Sarihan H (2005) Pneumatoceles in postpneumonic empyema: an algorithmic approach. J Pediatr Surg 40:1111–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jetley NK, El-Wahed Hussein MR, Softha AL (2009) Air filled, inflammatory, lung pseudo-cyst: etiopathogenesis and management. Indian J Pediatr 76:324–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Joosten KF, Hazelzet JA, Tiddens HA, Hazebroek FW, Dzoljic-Danilovic G, Neijens HJ, de Groot R (1995) Staphylococcal pneumonia in childhood: will early surgical intervention lower mortality? Pediatr Pulmonol 20:83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kunyoshi V, Cataneo DC, Cataneo AJ (2006) Complicated pneumonias with empyema and/or pneumatocele in children. Pediatr Surg Int 22:186–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nagasawa KK, Johnson SM (2010) Thoracoscopic treatment of pediatric lung abscesses. J Pediatr Surg 45:574–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Puligandla PS, Laberge JM (2008) Respiratory infections: pneumonia, lung abscess, and empyema. Semin Pediatr Surg 17:42–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Reynolds M (1998) Disorders of the thoracic cavity and pleura and infections of the lung, pleura, and mediastinum. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (ed) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  13. Thomas B, Pugalenthi A, Chilvers M (2009) Pleuropul­monary complications of PVL-positive Staphylococcus aureus infection in children. Acta Paediatr 98:1372–1375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 10.7: Lung Parasitosis

  1. Aghajanzadeh M, Safarpoor F, Amani H, Alavi A (2008) One-stage procedures for lung and liver hydatid cysts. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 16:392–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chopdat N, Menezes CN, John MA, Mahomed N, Grobusch MP (2007) A gardener who coughed up blood. Lancet 370:1520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darwish B (2006) Clinical and radiological manifestations of 206 patients with pulmonary hydatidosis over a ten-year period. Prim Care Respir J 15:246–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Demirbilek S, Sander S, Atayurt HF, Aydin G (2001) Hydatid disease of the liver in childhood: the success of medical therapy and surgical alternatives. Pediatr Surg Int 17:373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dincer SI, Demir A, Sayar A, Gunluoglu MZ, Kara HV, Gurses A (2006) Surgical treatment of pulmonary hydatid disease: a comparison of children and adults. J Pediatr Surg 41:1230–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Djuricic SM, Grebeldinger S, Kafka DI, Djan I, Vukadin M, Vasiljevicz ZV (2010) Cystic echinococcosis in children – the seventeen-year experience of two large medical centers in Serbia. Parasitol Int 59:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gavidia CM, Gonzales AE, Zhang W, McManus DP, Lopera L, Ninaquispe B, Garcia HH, Rodriguez S, Verastegui M, Calderon C, Pan WK, Gilman RH (2008) Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis, central Peruvian highlands. Emerg Infect Dis 14:260–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kilimcioglu AA, Ozkol M, Bayindir P, Girginkardesler N, Ostan I, Ok UZ (2006) The value of ultrasonography alone in screening surveys of cystic echinococcosis in children in turkey. Parasitol Int 55:273–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mishra PK, Agrawal A, Joshi M, Sanghvi B, Gupta R, Parelkar SV (2010) Minimal access surgery for multiorgan hydatid cysts. Afr J Paediatr Surg 7:40–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Olmez D, Babayigit A, Arslan H, Uzuner N, Ozturk Y, Karaman O, Cakmakci H (2008) Multiorgan involvement in a pediatric patient with hydatid disease. J Trop Pediatr 54:417–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Reynolds M (1998) Disorders of the thoracic cavity and pleura and infections of the lung, pleura, and mediastinum. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (ed) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  12. Tuncözgür B, Isik AF, Nacak I, Akar E, Elbeyli L (2007) Dilemma on the treatment of haemoptysis: an analysis of 249 patients. Acta Chir Belg 107:302–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ulkü R, Eren N, Cakir O, Balci A, Onat S (2004) Extrapulmonary intrathoracic hydatid cysts. Can J Surg 47:95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Zeyrek D, Savas R, Gulen F, Demir E, Tanac R (2008) “Air-bubble” signs in the CT diagnosis of perforated pulmonary hydatid cyst: three case reports. Minerva Pediatr 60:361–364PubMedGoogle Scholar

Section 10.8: Lung and Pleural Tumors

  1. Bagan P, Hassan M, Le Pimpec Barthes F, Peyrard S, Souilamas R, Danel C, Riquet M (2006) Prognostic factors and surgical indications of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioepithelioma: a review of the literature. Ann Thorac Surg 82:2010–2013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartyik K, Bede O, Tiszlavicz L, Onozo B, Virag I, Turi S (2004) Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis in children and adolescents: report of a new case and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr 163:731–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Briccoli A, Rocca M, Salone M, Guzzardella GA, Balladelli A, Bacci G (2010) High grade osteosarcoma of the extremities metastatic to the lung: long-term results in 323 patients treated combining surgery and chemotherapy, 1985–2005. Surg Oncol 19:193–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dishop MK, Kuruvilla S (2008) Primary and metastatic lung tumors in the pediatric population: a review and 25-year experience at a large children’s hospital. Arch Pathol Lab Med 132:1079–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dommange-Romero F, Collardeau-Frachon S, Hameury F (2010) Child pleuropulmonary blastoma. Bull Cancer 97:1047–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Harting MT, Blakely ML (2006) Management of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastases. Semin Pediatr Surg 15:25–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hill DA, Jarzembowski JA, Priest JR, Williams G, Schoettler P, Dehner LP (2008) Type I pleuropulmonary blastoma: pathology and biology study of 51 cases from the international pleuropulmonary blastoma registry. Am J Surg Pathol 32:282–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hullo E, Cotta L, Rabeyrin M, Larroquet M, Plantaz D (2011) Bronchial carcinoid tumors in children. Bull Cancer 98:709–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kayton ML (2006) Pulmonary metastasectomy in pediatric patients. Thorac Surg Clin 16:167–183, viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kovach SJ, Fischer AC, Katzman PJ, Salloum RM, Ettinghausen SE, Madeb R, Koniaris LG (2006) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. J Surg Oncol 94:385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Naik-Mathuria BJ, Cotton RT, Fitch ME, Popek EJ, Brandt ML (2008) Thoracoscopic excision of an intrathoracic mesothelial cyst in a child. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 18:317–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Newman B (2011) Thoracic neoplasms in children. Radiol Clin North Am 49:633–664, vPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Priest JR, Andic D, Arbuckle S, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Hill DA, Williams G (2011) Great vessel/cardiac extension and tumor embolism in pleuropulmonary blastoma: a report from the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Registry. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56:604–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shochat S (1998) Tumors of the lung. In: O’Neill JA Jr et al (eds) Pediatric surgery, vol 1, 5th edn. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  15. Soyer T, Ciftci AO, Gücer S, Orhan D, Senocak ME (2004) Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor of the lung: a previously unreported entity. J Pediatr Surg 39:1729–1730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tagge EP, Mulvihill D, Chandler JC, Richardson M, Uflacker R, Othersen HD (1996) Childhood pleuropulmonary blastoma: caution against nonoperative management of congenital lung cysts. J Pediatr Surg 31:187–189; discussion 190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Temeck BK, Wexler LH, Steinberg SM, McClure LL, Horowitz M, Pass HI (1995) Metastasectomy for sarcomatous pediatric histologies: results and prognostic factors. Ann Thorac Surg 59:1385–1389; discussion 1390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Travis WD (2010) Sarcomatoid neoplasms of the lung and pleura. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:1645–1658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Utine GE, Ozcelik U, Kiper N, Dogru D, Yalcn E, Cobanoglu N, Pekcan S, Kara A, Cengiz AB, Ceyhan M, Secmeer G, Göcmen A (2009) Pediatric pleural effusions: etiological evaluation in 492 patients over 29 years. Turk J Pediatr 51:214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Warmann SW, Fuchs J (2009) Principles of oncological surgery for lung metastases in paediatric solid tumours. Zentralbl Chir 134:537–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Weldon CB, Shamberger RC (2008) Pediatric pulmonary tumors: primary and metastastic. Semin Pediatr Surg 17:17–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georges L. Kaiser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Surgery InselspitalUniversity of BerneBerneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations