Advertisement

Tumors, Tumorlike Masses, and Abnormalities of Scalp, Calvaria, and Adjacent Regions

  • Georges L. Kaiser
Chapter

Abstract

Masses and abnormalities of the scalp and calvaria occur frequently, are caused by a wide variety of possible pathologies, and are often underestimated in their significance by the primary care provider. Table 1.1 gives a surview of the possible lesions and marks them according to their frequency. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts belong to the most frequently quoted masses, atretic cephalocele, ossified cephalhematoma, eosinophilic granuloma, and hemangioma to the next frequent masses in the pediatric neurosurgical literature and pilomatricoma in the dermatological papers. Up to one third of the lesions have an intracranial and almost half of these an intradural extension.

Keywords

Fibrous Dysplasia Sinus Tract Dermoid Cyst Epidermoid Cyst Eosinophilic Granuloma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

Section 1.1.1

  1. Armon N, Sharmay S, Maly A, Margulis A (2010) Occurrence and characteristics of head cysts in children. Eplasty 10:e37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dutta S, Lorenz HP, Albanese CT (2006) Endoscopic excision of benign forehead masses: a novel approach for pediatric general surgeons. J Pediatr Surg 41:1874–1878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Martinez-Lage JF, Capel A, Costa TR, Perez-Espejo MA, Poza M (1992) The child with a mass on its head: diagnostic and surgical strategies. Childs Nerv Syst 8:247–252Google Scholar
  4. Ruge JR, Tomita T, Naidich TP, Hahn YS, McLone DG (1988) Scalp and Cal-varial masses of infants and children. Neurosurgery 22:1037–1041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Thaller SR, Bauer BS (1987) Cysts and cyst-like lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Clin Plast Surg 14:327–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Willatt JM, Quaghebeur G (2004) Calvarial masses of infants and children. A radio-logical approach. Clin Radiol 59:474–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Yoon SH, Park SH (2008) A study of 77 cases of surgically excised scalp and skull masses in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst 24:459–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.2

  1. Bächli H, Zettl AS, Köppl R, Mayr J (2007) Vorsicht vor mittellinigen nasalen Pickeln im Kindesalter! (Midline nasal pimple in infancy: caution!). Schweiz Med Forum 7:862–863Google Scholar
  2. Blake WE, Chow CW, Holmes AD, Meara JG (2006) Nasal dermoid sinus cysts. A retrospective review and discussion of investigation and management. Ann Plast Surg 57:535–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caldarelli M, Massimi L, Kondageski C, di Rocco C (2004) Intracranial midline dermoid and epidermoid cysts in children. J Neurosurg 100:473–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Fermin S, Fernandez-Guerra RA, Lopez-Camacho O, Alvarez R (2001) Congenital dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanel in mestizo-mulatto children. Childs Nerv Syst 17:353–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hanikeri M, Waterhouse N, Kirkpatrick N, Peterson D, Macleod I (2005) The management of midline transcranial nasal dermoid sinus cysts. Br J Plast Surg 58:1043–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hedlund G (2006) Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MRI imaging. Pediatr Radiol 36:647–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Martinez-Lage JF, Quinonez MA, Poza M, Puche A, Casas C, Costa TR (1985) Congenital epidermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. Childs Nerv Syst 1:319–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Okuda Y, Oi S (1987) Nasal dermal sinus and dermoid cyst with intrafalcial extension: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 3:40–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Schijman E, Monges J, Cragnaz R (1986) Congenital dermal sinuses, dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa. Childs Nerv Syst 2:83–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Stokes RB, Saunders CJ, Thaller SR (1996) Bregmatic epidermoid inclusion cyst eroding both calvarial tables. J Craniofac Surg 7:148–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Tateshima S, Numoto RT, Abe S, Yasne M, Abe T (2000) Rapidly enlarging dermoid cyst over the anterior fontanel: a case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 16:875–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Vinchon M, Soto-Ares G, Assaker R, Belbachir F, Dhellemmes P (2001) Occipital dermal sinuses: report of nine pediatric cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg 34:255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.3

  1. Kang GC, Song C (2008) Forty-one cervicofacial vascular anomalies and their surgical treatment – retrospection and review. Ann Acad Med Singapore 37:165–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Yoshida D, Sugisaki Y, Shimura T, Teramoto A (1999) Cavernous hemangioma of the skull in a neonate. Childs Nerv Syst 15:351–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.4

  1. Martinez-Lage JF, Sola J, Casa C, Poza M, Almagro MJ, Girona DG (1992) Atretic cephalocele: the tip of the iceberg. J Neurosurg 77:230–235Google Scholar
  2. Yamazaki T, Enomoto T, Iguchi M, Nose T (2001) Atretic cephalocele – report of two cases with special reference to embryology. Childs Nerv Syst 17:674–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.5

  1. Chen CS, David D, Hanieh A (2004) Morning glory syndrome and basal encephalocele. Childs Nerv Syst 20:87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dehdashti AR, Abonzeid H, Momjian S, Delavelle J, Rilliet B (2004) Occipital extra- and intracranial lipoencephalocele associated with tectocerebellar dysraphia. Childs Nerv Syst 20:225–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Formica F, Iannelli A, Paludetti G, Di Rocco C (2002) Transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. Childs Nerv Syst 18:295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Mahapatra AK, Tandon PN, Dhawan IK, Khazanchi RK (1994) Anterior encephaloceles: a report of 90 cases. Childs Nerv Syst 10:501–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Martinez-Lage JF, Gonzalez-Tortosa XY, Poza M (1982) Meningocele of the asterion. Childs Brain 9:53–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Parizek J, Mericka P, Nemecek S, Nemeckova J, Zemankova M, Sercl M, Häringova M (1996) Allogeneic cartilage used for skull base plasty in children with primary intranasal encephalomeningocele associated with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Childs Nerv Syst 12:136–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Traumer BI, Singh S, Ketch L (1989) An unusual case of temporal encephalocele. Childs Nerv Syst 5:371–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.6

  1. Choudhury AR, Bandey SA, Haleem A, Sharif H (1996) Glial heterotopias of the nose. A report of two cases. Childs Nerv Syst 12:43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Verney Y, Zanolla G, Teixeira R, Oliveira LC (2001) Midline nasal mass in infancy: a nasal glioma case report. Eur J Pediatr Surg 11:324–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.7

  1. Wen CS, Chang YL, Wang HS, Kno MF, Tu YK (2005) Sinus pericranii: from gross and neuroimaging findings to different pathophysiological changes. Childs Nerv Syst 21:482–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.1.8

  1. Bang RL, Ghoneim IE, Gang RK, Al Najjadah I (2003) Treatment dilemma: conservative versus surgery in cutis aplasia congenita. Eur J Pediatr Surg 13:125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chakrabortty S, Oi S, Suzuki H, Izawa I, Yamaguchi M, Tamaki N, Matsumoto S (1993) Congenital frontal bone defect with intact overlying scalp. Childs Nerv Syst 9:485–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Martinez-Lage JF, Almagro MJ, Lopez-Hernandez F, Poza M (2002) Aplasia cutis congenital of the scalp. Childs Nerv Syst 18:634–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Steinbock P (2000) Repair of a congenital cranial defect in a newborn with autologous calvarial bone. Childs Nerv Syst 16:47–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.2.1

  1. Kaiser GL, Oesch V (2009) Sagittal craniosynostosis combined with ossified cephalhematoma – a tricky and demanding puzzle. Childs Nerv Syst 25:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.2.2

  1. Djientcheu VD, Rilliet B, Delavelle J, Argyropoulo M, Gudinchet F, de Tribolet N (1996) Leptomeningeal cyst in newborns due to vacuum extraction: report of two cases. Childs Nerv Syst 12:399–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Johnson DL, Helman T (1995) Enlarging skull fractures in children. Childs Nerv Syst 11:265–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Papaefthymion G, Oberbauer R, Pendl G (1996) Craniocerebral birth trauma caused by vacuum extraction: a case of growing skull fracture as a perinatal complication. Childs Nerv Syst 12:117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.2.3

  1. Donmouchtsis SK, Arul Kumaran S (2006) Head injuries after instrumental vaginal deliveries. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 18:129–134, Lippincott Williams & WilkinsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fujisawa H, Yonaha H, Oka Y, Uehava M, Nagata Y, Kajiwara K, Fuji M, Kato S, Akimura T, Suzuki M (2005) A marked exophthalmos and corneal ulceration caused by delayed massive expansion of subgaleal hematoma. Childs Nerv Syst 21:489–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Uhing MR (2005) Management of birth injuries. Clin Perinatol 32:19–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.3.1

  1. Prasad A, Madan VS, Suri ML, Buxi TBS (1992) Cryptogenetic osteomyelitis of the skull and intracerebral abscess. Childs Nerv Syst 8:142–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.4.1

  1. Brandling-Bennett HA, Metry DW, Baselga E, Lucky AW, Adams DM, Cordisco MR, Frieden IJ (2008) Infantile hemangiomas with unusually prolonged growth phase. Arch Dermatol 144:1632–1637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mulliken JB, Fishman SJ (1998) Vascular anomalies: hemangiomas and malformations. In: O’Neill JA (ed) Pediatric surgery, vol II, 5th edn. Year Book, Inc, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  3. Mulliken JB, Glowacki J (1982) Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children. A classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:412–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.4.2

  1. Im SH, Wang KC, Kim SK, Oh CW, Kim DG, Hong SK, Kim NR, Chi JG, Cho BK (2001) Childhood meningioma: unusual location, atypical radiological findings, and favourable treatment and outcome. Childs Nerv Syst 17:656–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Lang DA, Neil-Dwyer G, Evans BT, Sarsfield P, Nenji E (1996) Cranial fasciitis of the orbit and maxilla: extensive resection and reconstruction. Childs Nerv Syst 12:218–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Martinez-Lage JF, Acosta J, Sola J, Poza M (1996) Congenital desmoids tumor of the scalp: a histologically benign lesion with aggressive clinical behaviour. Childs Nerv Syst 12:409–412Google Scholar
  4. Martinez-Lage JF, Torroba A, Lopez F, Manzoms MC, Poza M (1997) Cranial fasciitis of the anterior fontanel. Childs Nerv Syst 13:626–628Google Scholar
  5. Niimura K, Shirane R, Yoshimoto T (1997) Infantile myofibromatosis located in the temporal bone. Childs Nerv Syst 13:629–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Tsuji M, Inagaki T, Kasai H, Yamanouchi Y, Kawamoto K, Uemura Y (2004) Solitary myofibromatosis of the skull: a case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 20:366–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Wiener ES (1998) Rhabdomyosarcoma. In: O’Neill JA (ed) Pediatric surgery, vol I, 5th edn. Year Book, Inc, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  8. Yamada H, Sakata K, Kashiki Y, Okuma A, Takada M (1979) Peculiar congenital parieto-occipital head tumor. Report of 3 cases. Childs Brain 5:426–432PubMedGoogle Scholar

Section 1.4.3

  1. Viswanatha B (2011) Characteristics of osteoma of the temporal bone in young adolescents. Ear Nose Throat J 90:72–79PubMedGoogle Scholar

Section 1.4.4

  1. Ameli NO, Rahmat H, Abbassioun K (1981) Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the cranial bones: report of fourteen cases. Neurosurg Rev 4:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kim YH, Song JJ, Choi HG, Lee JH, Oh SH, Chang SO, Koo JW, Kim CS (2009) Role of surgical management in temporal bone fibrous dysplasia. Acta Otolaryngol 5:1–6Google Scholar
  3. Kusano T, Hirabayashi S, Eguchi T, Sugawara Y (2009) Treatment strategies for fibrous dysplasia. J Craniofac Surg 20:768–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lädermann A, Stern R, Ceroni D, De Coulon G, Taylor S, Kaelin A (2008) Unusual radiological presentation of monostotic fibrous dysplasia. Orthopedics 31:282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Maher CO, Friedman JA, Meyer FB, Lynch JJ, Unni K, Raffel C (2002) Surgical treatment of fibrous dysplasia of the skull in children. Pediatr Neurosurg 37:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Moore AT, Buncic JR, Munro IR (1985) Fibrous dysplasia of the orbit in childhood. Clinical features and management. Ophthalmology 92:12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Posnick JC, Wells MD, Drake JM, Buncic JR, Armstrong D (1993) Childhood fibrous dysplasia presenting as blindness: a skull base approach for resection and immediate reconstruction. Pediatr Neurosurg 19:260–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rahman AM, Madge SN, Billing K, Anderson B, Leibovitch I, Selva D, David D (2009) Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. Eye (Lond) 23:2175–2181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Valentini V, Cassoni A, Marianetti TM, Terenzi V, Fadda MT, Iannetti G (2009) Craniomaxillofacial fibrous dysplasia: conservative treatment or radical surgery? A retrospective study of 68 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 123:653–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Wei YT, Jiang S, Cen Y (2010) Fibrous dysplasia of skull. J Craniofac Surg 21:538–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section 1.4.5

  1. Allen CE, McClain KL (2007) Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a review of past, current and future therapies. Drugs Today (Barc) 43:627–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mut M, Cataltepe O, Bakar B, Cila A, Akalan N (2004) Eosinophilic granuloma of the skull associated with epidural haematoma: a case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 20:765–769PubMedGoogle Scholar

Section 1.4.6

  1. Dammann O, Hagel C, Allers B, Grubel G, Schulte FJ (1995) Malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. Childs Nerv Syst 11:186–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ersalin Y, Mutener S, Demirtas E (2000) Intraosseous neurinoma of the parietal bone. Childs Nerv Syst 16:181–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Germano A, Caruso G, Caffo M, Galatioto S, Belvedere M, Cardia E (1998) Temporal osteoclastoma: an exceptional lesion in infancy. Childs Nerv Syst 14:213–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Guida F, Rapana A, Conti C, Cagliari E, Civelli F, Trincia G (2001) Cranial aneurysmal bone cyst: a diagnostic problem with review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 17:297–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Martinez-Lage JF, Garcia S, Torroba A, Sola J, Poza M (1996) Unusual osteolytic midline lesion of the skull: benign osteoblastoma of the parietal bone. Childs Nerv Syst 12:343–345Google Scholar
  6. Martinez-Lage JF, Martinez Perez M, Domingo R, Poza M (1997) Posttraumatic intradiploic arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa. Childs Nerv Syst 13:293–296Google Scholar
  7. Otah K, Kondoh T, Yasuo K, Kohsaka Y, Kohmura E (2003) Primary granulocytic sarcoma in the sphenoid bone and orbit. Childs Nerv Syst 19:674–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Salvati M, Ciappetta P, Capone R, Santoro A, Raguso M, Raco A (1993) Osteosarcoma of the skull in a child: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst 9:437–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. van den Berg H, Kroon HM, Slaar A, Hogendoorn P (2008) Incidence of biopsy-proven bone tumors in children: a report based on the Dutch pathology registration “PALGA”. J Pediatr Orthop 28:29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Walsh JW, Stand RD (1982) Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of the neurocranium in infancy. Childs Brain 9:329–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Yasuda T, Inagaki T, Yamanouchi Y, Kawamoto K, Kohdera U, Kawasaki H (2003) A case of primary Ewing’s sarcoma of the occipital bone presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. Childs Nerv Syst 19:792–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georges L. Kaiser
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Surgery InselspitalUniversity of BerneBerneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations