Further Issues

Chapter

Learning Objectives

This chapter is to help students understand:
  1. 1.

    Conflicts and harmonization between the rules of the multilateral trading system and policies to protect the environment;

     
  2. 2.

    Main reasons of the WTO mechanism’s failure to provide complete provisions to cover the environment;

     
  3. 3.

    The WTO’s competence for policy coordination in the environmental area;

     
  4. 4.

    Anti-competitive practices as trade barriers;

     
  5. 5.

    International efforts to regulate anti-competitive practices;

     

Keywords

World Trade Organization Supra Note Uruguay Round Multilateral Environmental Agreement Appellate Body Report 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Additional Procedure Adopted Under Rule 16 (1) of the Working Procedures for Appellate Review. Nov. 8, 2000. WT/DS135/9.Google Scholar
  2. Biographical Notes on Members of World Trade Organization Appeals Body, Daily Rep. For Executives (BNA) No. 230, 1995.Google Scholar
  3. Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1990. Pub. L. 101–162, Title VI, §609, Nov. 21, 1989, 103, Stat. 1037 (codified at 16 U.S.C. 1037).Google Scholar
  4. Department of Commerce, Justice and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1990, Pub. L. No. 101–162, 103 Stat. 988 (1989) (codified at 16 U.S.C. § 1537 (1994)).Google Scholar
  5. OECD, Complementarities between Trade and Competition Policies, COM/TD/DAFFE/CLP(98)98/FINAL, 4–9(1999).Google Scholar
  6. OECD, International Options to Improve the Coherence between Trade and Competition Policies, COM/DAFFE/CLP(99)102/FINAL, 2000.Google Scholar
  7. United Nations, Vienna Convention on the Law of the Treaties. May 23, 1969, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331, 340 (1969).Google Scholar
  8. WTO Secretariat, Report on the WTO’s high-level symposium on trade and development, International Institute for Sustainable Development, (Mar. 17–18, 1999).Google Scholar
  9. WTO, Decision on Trade and Environment. Apr. 15, 1994. Legal Instruments – Results of the Uruguay Round, Ministerial Decisions, 33 I.L.M. 1267.Google Scholar
  10. WTO Secretariat. Matrix on Trade Measures Pursuant to Selected MEAs. WT/CTE/W/160/Rev.2, TN/TE/S/5. Among the trade-related MEAs, there are Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozon Layer. Sept. 16, 1987. 1522 U.N.T.S. 3. (Apr. 25, 2003).Google Scholar
  11. WTO, Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 2. Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round. 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994).Google Scholar
  12. WTO Committee on Trade and Environment, Clarification of the Relationship between the WTO and Multilateral Environmental Agreements, WT/CTE/W/168 (Oct. 19, 2000).Google Scholar
  13. WTO Committee on Trade and Environment, The Relationship Between the Provisions of the Multilateral Trading System and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs), WT/CTE/W/139. (June 8, 2000).Google Scholar
  14. WTO Committee on Trade and Environment, Resolving the Relationship between WTO Rules and Multilateral Environmental Agreement, WT/CTE/W/170 (Oct. 19, 2000).Google Scholar
  15. WTO CTE. Oct. 19, 2000. Clarification of the Relationship between the WTO and Multilateral Environmental Agreements, submission by Switzerland, WTO Doc. WT/CTE/W/168; WTO CTE. June 12, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. WTO CTE. May 30, 1996. The Relationship between Trade Measures Pursuant to MEAs and the WTO Agreement, Proposal by Japan. WTO Doc. WT/CTE/W/31; and WTO CTE. Feb. 19, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. WTO CTE. June 25, 1999. Communication from the Secretariat for the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, UNCEP, WTO Doc. WT/CTE/W/115; WTO CTE. Feb. 19, 1996.Google Scholar
  18. WTO CTE. June 25, 1999. Communication from the Secretariat for the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, UNEP, WTO Doc. WT/CTE/W/115.Google Scholar
  19. World Trade Organization, trading into the future 46 (2nd ed. Mar. 2001). http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/doload_e/tif.pdf, Accessed 24 Feb. 2012, cited by Thomas, supra note 255.

Book

  1. Esty DC (1993) Greeting the GATT: trade, environment and the future. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Folsom RH, Gordon MW (1996) International business transactions. University of California PublishingGoogle Scholar
  3. Howse R, Tuerk E (2001) The EU and the WTO: legal and constitutional issues. Hart PublishingGoogle Scholar
  4. Jackson JH (June 1969) World trade and the law of GATT. Lexis Law PubGoogle Scholar
  5. Jackson JH (2000) The world trading system 240Google Scholar
  6. Jackson JH, Davey WJ, Sykes Jr. AO (1995) Legal problem of international economic relations: cases, materials and text, 3rd edn. West PublishingGoogle Scholar
  7. Trebilcock MJ, Howse R (1999) The regulation of international trade, 2nd edn. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  8. Walker SL (1993) Environmental protection versus trade liberalization, finding the balance: an examination of the legality of environmental regulation under international trade law regimes. Faculties Universitaires Saint-LouisGoogle Scholar

Article

  1. Abbott FM (1999) Prevention and settlement of economic disputes between Japan and the United States. Arizona J Int’l Comparative Law 16Google Scholar
  2. Abbott FM (2000) Report: TRIPs in Seattle: the not-so-surprising failure and the future of the TRIPs agenda. Berkeley J Int’l Law 18Google Scholar
  3. Ala’i P (1999) Free trade or sustainable development? An analysis of the WTO appellate body’s shift to a more balanced approach to trade liberalizations. American University Int’l Law Rev 14Google Scholar
  4. Albren B (1996) The continued need for a narrowly-tailored, rule-based dispute resolution mechanism in future free trade agreement. Suffolk Transnat’l Law J 20Google Scholar
  5. Anderson B (1993) Unilateral trade measures and environmental protection policy. Temple Law Rev 66Google Scholar
  6. Baker B (1993) Protection, not protectionism: multilateral environmental agreements and the GATT. Vanderbilt J Transnat’l Law 26Google Scholar
  7. Barringer WH (1998) Competition policy and cross border dispute resolution: lessons learned from the U.S. – JAPAN film dispute. George Mason Law Rev 6Google Scholar
  8. Bellis J-F (2000) Anti-competitive practices and the WTO: the elusive search for new world trade rules. New Directions Int’l Economic LawGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhala R, Gantz DA (2002) WTO case review 2001. Arizona J Int’l and Comparative Law 19Google Scholar
  10. Blackmore DT (2004) Eradicating the long standing existence of a no-precedent rule in international trade law-looking toward stare decisions in WTO dispute settlement. North Carolina J Int’l Law Commercial Regulation 29Google Scholar
  11. Bree A (1998) The environmental exception after the shrimp/turtle appellate body report. Dick J Int’l Law 17Google Scholar
  12. Calderin CA (2002) The emergence of a responsible green World Trade Organization: why creating a world environment organization would hinder this goal. U. C. Davis J Int’l Law Policy 8Google Scholar
  13. Carmody C (1997) Of substantial interest: third parties under GATT. Michigan J Int’l Law 18Google Scholar
  14. Chang HF (2005) Environmental trade measures, the shrimp-turtle rulings, and the ordinary meaning of the text of the GATT. Chap Law Rev 8Google Scholar
  15. Charnovitz S (1993) The environment vs. trade rules: defogging the debate. Environmental Law 23Google Scholar
  16. Charnovitz (1994) The North American free trade agreement. Law Pol’y Int’l Bus 26Google Scholar
  17. Charnovitz S (2000) The supervision of health and biosafety regulation by world trade rules. Tulane Environ Law J 13Google Scholar
  18. Charnovitz (2002) The law of environmental “PPMs” in the WTO: debunking the myth of illegality. Yale J Int’l Law 27Google Scholar
  19. Cheyne I (1992) Environmental treaties and the GATT. Rev European Community Int’l Environ Law 1Google Scholar
  20. Cho S (2005) Linkage of free trade and social regulation: moving beyond the entropic dilemma. Chicago J Int’l Law 5Google Scholar
  21. Choinski AS (2002) Symposium, anatomy of a controversy: the balance of political forces behind implementation of the WTO’s gasoline decision. Law Policy Int’l Bus 33Google Scholar
  22. Chua ATL (1998) Precedent and principles of WTO panel jurisprudence. Berkeley J Int’l Law 16Google Scholar
  23. Clough CM (2000) The WTO dispute settlement system-a practitioner perspective. Fordham Int’l Law J 24Google Scholar
  24. Cone SM (2003) The environment and the World Trade Organization. New York Law School J Int’l Comparative Law 22Google Scholar
  25. Dailey V (2000) Sustainable development: reevaluating the trade vs. turtles conflict at the WTO. J Transnat’l Law Policy 9Google Scholar
  26. Ehrenhaft PE, Holdo A (1995) Corporate Counsel committee briefing on international antitrust and U.S.–Japan relations. The American Soc Int’l Law NewsletterGoogle Scholar
  27. Emslie JJ (2005) Labeling programs as a reasonably available least restrictive trade measure under Article XX’s nexus requirement. Brok J Int’l Law 30Google Scholar
  28. Ferris Jr. RJ, Zhang H (2002) The challenges of reforming an environmental legal culture: assessing the status quo and looking at post-WTO admission challenges for the People’s Republic of China. Georgetown Int’l Environ Law Rev 14Google Scholar
  29. Foster ME (1997–98) Trade and environment: making room for environmental trade measures within the GATT. Southern California Law Rev 71Google Scholar
  30. Gaines S (2001) The WTO’s reading of the GATT Article XX chapeau: a disguised restriction on environmental measures. University of Pennsylvania J Int’l Economic Law 22Google Scholar
  31. Howse R (2002) The appellate body rulings in the shrimp/turtle case: a new legal baseline for the trade and environment debate. Columbia J Environ Law 27Google Scholar
  32. Howse R, Regan D (2000) The product/process distinction-an illusory basis for disciplining ‘Unilateralism’ in trade policy. European J Int’l Law 11Google Scholar
  33. Hudec RE (1998) GATT/WTO constraints on national regulation: requiem for an “Aim and Effects” test. Int’l Law 32Google Scholar
  34. Hudnall S (1996) Towards a greener international trade system: multilateral environmental agreements and the World Trade Organization. Columbia J Law Social Problems 29Google Scholar
  35. Hunter et al. (1996) International environmental law and policyGoogle Scholar
  36. Jackson JH (1992) Symposium, environmental quality and free trade: interdependent goals or world trade rules and environmental policies: congruence or conflict. Washington and Lee Law Rev 49Google Scholar
  37. Kelley CR (2006) Power, linkage and accommodation: the WTO as an international actor and its influence on other actors and regimes. Berkeley J Int’l Law 24Google Scholar
  38. Kennedy KC (1998) The GATT-WTO system at fifty. Wisconsin Int’l Law J 16Google Scholar
  39. Kennedy KC (2001) Global trade issues in the new millennium: foreign direct investment and competition policy at World Trade Organization. George Washington Int’l Law Rev 33Google Scholar
  40. Knox JH (2004) The judicial resolution of conflicts between trade and the environment. Harvard Environ Law Rev 28Google Scholar
  41. Leebron D (1995) An overview of the Uruguay round results. Columbia J Transnat’l Law 34Google Scholar
  42. Matsushita M (1999) Prevention and settlement of economic disputes between Japan and the United States. Arizona J Int’l Comparative Law 16Google Scholar
  43. Mattice AL (2004) The fisheries subsidies negotiations in the World Trade Organization: a “Win-Win-Win” for trade, the environment and sustainable development. Golden Gate University Law Rev 34Google Scholar
  44. McDonald J (1993) Greening the GATT: harmonizing free trade and environmental protection in the new world order. Environ Law 23Google Scholar
  45. Meier M (1997) GATT, WTO, and the environment: to what extent do GATT/WTO rules permit member nations to protect the environment when doing so adversely affects trade? Colorado J Int’l Environ Law Policy 8Google Scholar
  46. Mungkalarungsi T (2002) The Trade and environment debate. Tulane J Int’l Comparative Law 10Google Scholar
  47. Ni K-J (2004) Redefinition and elaboration of an obligation to pursue international negotiations for solving global environmental problems in light of the WTO shrimp/turtle compliance adjudication between Malaysia and the United States. Minnesota J Global Trade 14Google Scholar
  48. Nissen JL (1997) Achieving a balance between trade and the environment: the need to amend the WTO/GATT to include multilateral environmental agreement. Law Policy Int’l Bus 28Google Scholar
  49. Oxley A (Feb. 2002) Implications of the decisions in the WTO shrimp turtle dispute. Int’l Trade Strategies Ltd.Google Scholar
  50. Pauwelyn J (2003) The limits of litigation: “Americanization” and negotiation in the settlement of WTO Dispute. Ohio Saint J Dispute Resolution 19Google Scholar
  51. Perez O (2005) Multiple regimes, issue linkage, and international cooperation: exploring the role of the WTO. University of Pennsylvania J Int’l Economic Law 26Google Scholar
  52. Petersmann E-U (1993) International trade law and international environment law: prevention and settlement of international environmental disputes in GATT. J World Trade 27Google Scholar
  53. Petersmann E-U (Dec. 1993) International competition rules for the GATT-MTO world trade and legal system. J World Trade 27Google Scholar
  54. Philip Bentley QC (2000) A re-assessment of Article XX, paragraphs (B) and (G) of GATT 1994 in the light of growing consumer and environmental concern about biotechnology. Fordham Int’l Law J 24Google Scholar
  55. Porges A (2003) Settling WTO disputes: what do litigation models tell us? Ohio Saint J Dispute Resolution 19Google Scholar
  56. Reif TM, Eckert J (2004) Courage you can’t understand: how to achieve the right balance between shaping and policing commerce in disputes before the World Trade Organization. Columbia J Transnat’l Law 42Google Scholar
  57. Reitz C (1996) Enforcement of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. University of Pennsylvania J Int’l Economic Law 17Google Scholar
  58. Rietvelt M (2005) Multilateral failure: a comprehensive analysis of the shrimp/turtle decision. Indiana Int’l Comparative Law Rev 15Google Scholar
  59. Rogers JW, Whitlock JP (2002) Is section 337 consistent with the GATT and the TRIPs agreement? American University Int’l Law Rev 17Google Scholar
  60. Shaffer GC (2001) The World Trade Organization under challenge: democracy and the law and politics of the WTO’s treatment of trade and environment matters. Harvard Environ Law Rev 25Google Scholar
  61. Shaw S, Schwartz R (2002) Trade and environment in the WTO: state of play. J World Trade 36Google Scholar
  62. Snape WJ, Lefkovitz NB (1994) Greening the GATT: setting the agenda/greening the GATT within the existing framework – Searching for GATT’s environmental Miranda: are “Process Standards” getting “Due Process?” Cornell Int’l Law J 27Google Scholar
  63. Specht D (1998) The dispute settlement systems of WTO and NAFTA-analysis and comparison. Georgia J Int’l Comparative Law 27Google Scholar
  64. Stewart TP (1999) U.S.–JAPAN economic disputes: the role of antidumping and countervailing duty laws. Arizona J Int’l Comparative Law 16Google Scholar
  65. Stewart TP, Johanson DS (2003) A nexus of trade and the environment: the relationship between the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety and the SPS agreement of the World Trade Organization. Colorado J Int’l Environ Law Policy 14Google Scholar
  66. Southwick JD (2000) Operation of the WTO agreements in the context of global commerce and competition. Investment and Labor Market, Law Policy Int’l Bus 31Google Scholar
  67. Swan AC (1990) Prevention and settlement of economic disputes between Japan and the United States. Arizona J Int’l Comparative Law 16Google Scholar
  68. Tanaka M (2003) Bridging the GAP between northern NGOS and southern sovereigns in the trade-environment debate: the pursuit of democratic dispute settlements in the WTO under the Rio Principles. Ecology Law Quarterly 30Google Scholar
  69. Thomas C (2002) Trade-related labor and environment agreement? J Int’l Economic Law 5Google Scholar
  70. Trachman JP (1999) The domain of WTO dispute resolution. Harvard Int’l Law J 40Google Scholar
  71. Weinstein MM, Charnovitz S (2001) The greening of the WTO. Foreign Affairs 80Google Scholar
  72. Wood DP (1995) Antitrust: a remedy for trade barriers? The Asian. Law Program, Japan Information Access ProjectGoogle Scholar
  73. Young MK (2001) Global trade issues in the new millennium: lessons from the battle fronts: U.S. – Japan trade wars and their impact on the multilateral trading system. George Washington Int’l Law Rev 33Google Scholar
  74. Yavitz L (2001–2002) The WTO and the environment: the shrimp case that created a new world order. J Natural Resour Environ Law 16Google Scholar
  75. Yavitz L (2002) The World Trade Organization appellate body report, European communities – measures affecting asbestos asbestos-containing products, WT/DS135/AB/R. Minn J Global Trade 11Google Scholar

WTO Dispute Settlement Report

  1. Panel Report, Thailand-Restrictions on Importation of and Internal Taxes on Cigarettes, (Nov. 7, 1990).Google Scholar
  2. Panel Report, Indonesia-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobiles Industry, WT/DS54/R, WT/DS55/R, WT/DS59/R, WT/DS64/R (July 2, 1998).Google Scholar
  3. Panel Report, United States-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WT/DS58/R. (May 15, 1998).Google Scholar
  4. Panel Report, United States-Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WT/DS2/R (Jan. 29, 1996).Google Scholar
  5. Panel Report, European Communities-Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WT/DS26/R/USA (Aug. 18, 1997).Google Scholar
  6. Panel Report, European Communities-Measures Affecting Asbestos-Containing Products, WT/DS135/R (Sep. 18, 2000).Google Scholar
  7. Panel Report, United States-Taxes on Automobiles, DS31/R (Oct. 11, 1994).Google Scholar
  8. Panel Report, United States Measures concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of A Tuna and Tuna Products, WT/DS381/R (Sep. 15, 2011).Google Scholar
  9. Panel Report, United States-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products-Recourse to Article 21.5 of DSU by Malaysia, WT/DS58/RW (June 15, 2001).Google Scholar
  10. Panel Report, Japan-Measures Affecting Agricultural Products, WT/DS76/R. (Oct. 27, 1998).Google Scholar
  11. Panel Report, European Communities-Trade Description of Sardines, WT/DS231/R (May 29, 2002).Google Scholar
  12. Panel Report, United States-Restrictions on Imports of Tuna (EEC), DS29/R (June 16, 1994).Google Scholar
  13. Panel Report, United States-Prohibition of Imports of Tuna and Tuna Products from Canada, GT/DS21/R - 39 S/155 (Sep. 3, 1991).Google Scholar
  14. Panel Report, Canada Measures Affecting Exports of Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, L/6268-35 S/98 (Mar. 22, 1988).Google Scholar
  15. Panel Report, Measures affecting meat and meat products (Hormones), WT/DS26, (July 26, 1999)Google Scholar
  16. Panel Report, Canada-Measures Affecting Exports of Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, (Mar. 22, 1988)Google Scholar
  17. Panel Report, United States-Restrictions on Imports of Tuna (Mexico), (Sep. 3, 1991)Google Scholar
  18. Panel Report, United States-Measures Affecting Alcoholic and Malt Beverages, (June 19, 1992)Google Scholar
  19. Appellate Body Report, Appellate Body Report on Korea-Measures Affecting Imports of Fresh, Chilled and Frozen Beef, WT/DS161/AB/R, WT/DS169/AB/R, (Jan. 10, 2001)Google Scholar
  20. Appellate Body Report, India-Patent Protection for Pharmaceutical Chemical Products, WT/DS50/AB/R (Dec. 19, 1997)Google Scholar
  21. Appellate Body Report, United States-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WT/DS58/AB/R (Oct. 12, 1998).Google Scholar
  22. Appellate Body Report, European Communities-Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products, WT/DS135/AB/R (Apr. 5, 2001)Google Scholar
  23. Appellate Body Report, Japan-Measures Affecting Agricultural Products, WT/DS76/AB/R (Feb. 22, 1999).Google Scholar
  24. Appellate Body Report, EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WT/DS48/AB/R (Jan. 16. 1998).Google Scholar
  25. Appellate Body Report, United States-Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WT/DS2/AB/R (Apr. 29, 1996).Google Scholar
  26. Appellate Body Report, Australia Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon, WT/DS18/AB.R (Oct. 20, 1998).Google Scholar
  27. Appellate Body Report, Japan-Measures Affecting the Importation of Apples, WT/DS245/AB/R (Nov. 26, 2003).Google Scholar
  28. Appellate Body Report, Japan-Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, WT/DS8/AB/R, WT/DS10/AB/R, WT/DS11/AB/R (Oct. 4, 1996).Google Scholar
  29. Appellate Body Report, Canada-Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals, WT/DS31/AB/R (July 30, 1997).Google Scholar
  30. Appellate Body Report, United States-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products-Recourse to Article 21.5 of DSU by Malaysia, WT/DS58/AB/RW (Oct. 22, 2001).Google Scholar
  31. Appellate Body Report, European Communities-Trade Description of Sardines, WT/DS231/AB/R, (Sep. 26, 2002).Google Scholar
  32. WTO, European Communities – Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas – Recourse to Arbitration by the European Communities under Article 22.6 of the DSU, WT/DS27/ARB/ECU (Mar. 24, 2000).Google Scholar

WTO Agreement

  1. WTO, Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, Apr. 15, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994)Google Scholar
  2. WTO, Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. WTO, Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights arts. 27.2-27.3 & etc., Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1 C, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125. (1994)Google Scholar
  4. WTO, Agreement on Agriculture, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994).Google Scholar
  5. WTO, Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994).Google Scholar
  6. WTO, Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994)Google Scholar
  7. WTO, Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125 (1994).Google Scholar
  8. WTO, General Agreement on Trade in Services, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1B, Legal Instruments-Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1125. (1994)Google Scholar
  9. WTO, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Apr. 15, 1994, Legal Instruments- Results of the Uruguay Round, I.L.M. 33: 1144 (1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of International TradePusan National UniversityPusanRepublic of South Korea

Personalised recommendations