Adders and Multipliers in Sub-excitable Automata

  • Andrew Adamatzky
Part of the Emergence, Complexity and Computation book series (ECC, volume 1)


To implement binary arithmetics we employ a cellular-automaton model of an excitable medium — the 2 + -medium, [2, 3, 8]. The 2 + -medium is a two-dimensional three-state — resting (·), excited (+) and refractory (–) — cellular automaton where a resting cell becomes excited only exactly two neighbours are excited. The transitions from excited state to refractory state, and from refractory state to resting state are unconditional.


Cellular Automaton Grey Region Stationary Oscillator Full Adder Refractory State 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fac. of Computing, Engineering and, Mathematical Sciences (CEMS)University of the West of EnglandBristolUnited Kingdom

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