Two-State Systems in Nuclear and Particle Physics

  • Dirk Dubbers
  • Hans-Jürgen Stöckmann
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


The quantum states “neutron” and “proton” are another two-state effective-spin system, called an isospin doublet. We first answer why we need isospin and discuss its role in nuclear physics. We then generalize the concept of isospin, and introduce the quantum numbers flavor and color of particle physics. For neutrinos and neutral mesons, a phenomenon called flavor oscillations is observed. Neutron–antineutron oscillations could also be allowed, but have not been observed, yet.


Neutrino Oscillation Lepton Number Nuclear Force Boron Isotope Flavor Symmetry 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk Dubbers
    • 1
  • Hans-Jürgen Stöckmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Fak. Physik und Astronomie, Physikalisches InstitutUniversität HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Fachbereich Physik Philipps-Universität MarburgMarburgGermany

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