Salmonid Reproductive Migration and Effects on Sexual Maturation

  • Kazufumi Hayashida
  • Kosuke Fukaya
  • Arjan P. Palstra
  • Hiroshi Ueda


Salmon has amazing abilities to migrate long distances from the ocean to their natal streams for reproduction. Reproductive homing migration was investigated by two different research approaches from behavioural biology to endocrinology using chum salmon in the north Pacific Ocean as well as two land-locked salmon species. These species are lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya and Lake Shikotsu, Hokkaido, Japan where the lakes serve as a model “ocean”. Physiological biotelemetry techniques were applied to examine the homing behaviours of adult chum salmon from the Bering Sea to Hokkaido as well as lacustrine sockeye and masu salmon in Lake Toya, and revealed that salmon can navigate in open water using different sensory systems. The hormone profiles in the brain–pituitary–gonadal (BPG) axis were investigated in chum salmon and lacustrine sockeye salmon during their homing migration, and clarified that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) plays leading roles on homing migration. The interaction between metabolism and sexual maturation under exercise, as experienced during the salmonid anorexic reproductive migration, has been studied by swimming the facultative migrant rainbow trout in a large swim flume. RNA sequencing of the red and white muscle transcriptome and microarray analysis of the ovary has been performed to identify hormonal and metabolic actors that are important in switching from the growth phase to the migration phenotype. Olfaction of spawning ground specific smell is suggested as switch from the navigating migration to the sexual maturation phenotype.


Rainbow Trout Sexual Maturation Chum Salmon Sockeye Salmon Masu Salmon 
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We would like to express our sincerely gratitude those who have carried out collaborative researches: M. Kaeriyama, H. Tanaka, Y. Naito, S. Urawa, N. Davis, M. Fukuwaka, JBK Leonard, H. Nii, Y Makiguchi, A. Sato, K. Orito, Y. Konno, K. Miyoshi, National Salmon Center, Hokkaido Fish Hatchery, Hokkaido Farming Fisheries Promotion Corporation, and Chitose Salmon Aquarium for the behavioural study; A. Urano, K. Amano, M. Iwata, S. Adachi, H. Ando, H. Yamada, H. Kudo, MM. Zerihun, RK. Bhandari, M. Fukaya, N. Kozu, T. Kitani, S. Matsumoto, S. Taniyama for the endocrinological study. The present study was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, from the Japan Society for the promotion of Science (JSPS), from the Hokkaido Foundation for the Promotion of Scientific and Industrial Technology, from the Mitsubishi Foundation, from the Mitsui & Co. Ltd, and from the Hokkaido University to HU. AP would specifically like to thank J. Planas, Y. Zohar, G. van den Thillart and F. Sibbing. AP was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship from the European Commission (REPRO-SWIM) with Grant Agreement number 219971 (with J. Planas), a FY2011 JSPS Invitation Fellowship for research in Japan by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. S-11097 with H. Ueda) and by IMARES.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazufumi Hayashida
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kosuke Fukaya
    • 1
  • Arjan P. Palstra
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Ueda
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Biosphere ScienceGraduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Watershed Environmental Engineering Research TeamCivil Engineering Research Institute for Cold RegionSapporoJapan
  3. 3.Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES)Wageningen Aquaculture, Wageningen University and Research CenterYersekeThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Laboratory of Aquatic Bioresources and Ecosystem, Section of Ecosystem Conservation, Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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