Advertisement

Complications of Adnexal MassesOpen image in new window

  • Jean Noel Buy
  • Michel Ghossain
Chapter

Abstract

Ovarian masses are usually asymptomatic and may grow to significant size before they can be palpated and give rise to symptoms. Intracystic hemorrhage, rupture or leakage, and torsion are the most frequent complications; infection, necrosis, fistula, and hernia are rare.

Keywords

Fallopian Tube Corpus Luteum Hydatid Cyst Dermoid Cyst Solid Portion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Abolmakarem H, Tharmaratnum S, Thilaganathan B (2001) Fetal anemia as a consequence of hemorrhage into an ovarian cyst. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 17(6):527–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adamsbaum C, Metsdagh P, Andre C, Rocourt N, Robert Y (2000) Cystic ovarian pathology excepting genital activity. J Radiol 81(12 Suppl):1789–1797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kirkinen P, Jouppila P (1985) Perinatal aspects of pregnancy complicated by fetal ovarian cyst. J Perinat Med 13(5):245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suita S, Handa N, Nakano H (1992) Antenatally detected ovarian cysts – a therapeutic dilemma. Early Hum Dev 29(1–3):363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hann LE, Lui DM, Shi W, Bach AM, Selland DL, Castiel M (2000) Adnexal masses in women with breast cancer: US findings with clinical and histopathologic correlation. Radiology 216(1):242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee KR, Young RH (2003) The distinction between primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas of the ovary: gross and histologic findings in 50 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 27(3):281–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hayes MC, Scully RE (1987) Ovarian steroid cell tumors (not otherwise specified). A clinicopathological analysis of 63 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 11(11):835–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaworski RC, Boadle R, Greg J, Cocks P (2001) Peritoneal “melanosis” associated with a ruptured ovarian dermoid cyst: report of a case with electron-probe energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20(4):386–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Muller AM, Sondgen D, Strunz R, Muller KM (2002) Gliomatosis peritonei: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 100(2):213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levy AD, Shaw JC, Sobin LH (2009) Secondary tumors and tumorlike lesions of the peritoneal cavity: imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radio­graphics 29(2):347–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bider D, Ben-Rafael Z, Goldenberg M, Shalev J, Mashiach S (1989) Pregnancy outcome after unwinding of twisted ischaemic-haemorrhagic adnexa. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 96(4):428–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shalev J, Goldenberg M, Oelsner G, Ben-Rafael Z, Bider D, Blankstein J, Mashiach S (1989) Treatment of twisted ischemic adnexa by simple detorsion. N Engl J Med 321(8):546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aziz D, Davis V, Allen L, Langer JC (2004) Ovarian torsion in children: is oophorectomy necessary? J Pediatr Surg 39(5):750–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abes M, Sarihan H (2004) Oophoropexy in children with ovarian torsion. Eur J Pediatr Surg 14(3):168–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghossain MA, Hachem K, Aoun NJ, Haddad-Zebouni S, Mansour F, Suidan JS, Abboud J (2006) Spontaneous detorsion of the ovary: can it be diagnosed by MRI? J Magn Reson Imaging 24(4):880–885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghossain MA, Hachem K, Buy JN, Hourany-Rizk RG, Aoun NJ, ­Haddad-Zebouni S, Mansour F, Attieh E, Abboud J (2004) Adnexal torsion: magnetic resonance findings in the viable adnexa with emphasis on stromal ovarian appearance. J Magn Reson Imaging 20(3):451–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hall BP, Printz DA, Roth J (1993) Massive ovarian edema: ultrasound and MR characteristics. J Comput Assist Tomogr 17(3):477–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Umesaki N, Tanaka T, Miyama M, Nishimura S, Kawamura N, Ogita S (2000) Successful preoperative diagnosis of massive ovarian edema aided by comparative imaging study using magnetic resonance and ultrasound. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 89(1):97–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghossain MA, Buy JN, Bazot M, Haddad S, Guinet C, Malbec L, Hugol D, Truc JB, Poitout P, Vadrot D (1994) CT in adnexal torsion with emphasis on tubal findings: correlation with US. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18(4):619–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim YH, Cho KS, Ha HK, Byun JY, Auh YH, Rhim HC, Shim JC, Cha SJ, Hur G (1999) CT features of torsion of benign cystic teratoma of the ovary. J Comput Assist Tomogr 23(6):923–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shalev J, Mashiach R, Bar-Hava I, Girtler O, Bar J, Dicker D, Meizner I (2001) Subtorsion of the ovary: sonographic features and clinical management. J Ultrasound Med 20(8):849–854; quiz 856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kupesic S, Plavsic BM (2010) Adnexal torsion: color Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound. Abdom Imaging 35(5):602–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jain KA (1995) Magnetic resonance imaging findings in ovarian torsion. Magn Reson Imaging 13(1):111–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bader T, Ranner G, Haberlik A (1996) Torsion of a normal adnexa in a premenarcheal girl: MRI findings. Eur Radiol 6(5):704–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kawahara Y, Fukuda T, Futagawa S, Sakamoto I, Takao M, Kinoshita Y, Hayashi K (1996) Intravascular gas within an ovarian tumor: a CT sign of ­ovarian torsion. J Comput Assist Tomogr 20(1):154–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghossain MA, Buy JN, Sciot C, Jacob D, Hugol D, Vadrot D (1997) CT findings before and after adnexal torsion: rotation of a focal solid element of a cystic adjunctive sign in diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169(5):1343–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kimura I, Togashi K, Kawakami S, Takakura K, Mori T, Konishi J (1994) Ovarian torsion: CT and MR imaging appearances. Radiology 190(2):337–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Warnock NG, Brown BP, Barloon TJ, Hemann LS (1994) Spontaneous ­detorsion of the ovary demonstrated by ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 13(1):57–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guerriero S, Ajossa S, Caffiero A, Mais V (1995) Relationship between abnormally high levels of plasma CA 125 and resolution of acute pelvic pain in two women with endometrioma. Gynecol Obstet Invest 40(1):61–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Scully RE, Young RH, Clement PB (1998) Tumor-like lesions. In: Rosai J, Sobin LH (eds) Tumors of the ovary, maldeveloped gonads, fallopian tube, and broad ligament, vol 23. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, pp 409–450Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clement PB (2002) Nonneoplastic lesions of the ovary. In: Kurman RJ (ed) Blaustein’s pathology of the female genital tract, 5th edn. Springer, New-York, pp 675–727Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kramer LA, Lalani T, Kawashima A (1997) Massive edema of the ovary: high resolution MR findings using a phased-array pelvic coil. J Magn Reson Imaging 7(4):758–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Haque TL, Togashi K, Kobayashi H, Fujii S, Konishi J (2000) Adnexal torsion: MR imaging findings of viable ovary. Eur Radiol 10(12):1954–1957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1984) Fibromatosis and massive edema of the ovary, possibly related entities: a report of 14 cases of fibromatosis and 11 cases of massive edema. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3(2):153–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Russell P, Farnsworth A (1997) Massive edema and fibromatosis. In: Russell P, Farnsworth A et al (eds) Surgical pathology of the ovaries. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 147–154Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kilickesmez O, Tasdelen N, Yetimoglu B, Kayhan A, Cihangiroglu M, Gurmen N (2009) Diffusion-weighted imaging of adnexal torsion. Emerg Radiol 16(5):399–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fujii S, Kaneda S, Kakite S, Kanasaki Y, Matsusue E, Harada T, Kaminou T, Ogawa T (2011) Diffusion-weighted imaging findings of adnexal torsion: initial results. Eur J Radiol 77(2):330–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zarain Garcia F (1974) Cystic teratoma of the ovary associated with abscess and vaginal fistula. Ginecol Obstet Mex 36(213):49–53Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reina J, Borrell N (1991) Infection of a neoplastic ovarian cyst caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, serotype Enteritidis. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 9(3):185–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hsueh PR, Hwang CC, Yen KP, Lin M, Young C (1992) Abscess formation complicated in ovarian mucinous cystadenoma: a case report. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 66(3):416–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wan YL, Chen WJ, Chien CC, Lee TY, Tsai CC (1993) Ovarian dermoid cyst associated with tuberculosis, cystadenoma and torsion. J Formos Med Assoc 92(9):851–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoshida M, Katsuragawa H, Miyamoto U, Ohnishi S, Katsura Y (1993) Estrogen-producing ovarian adenocarcinoma with large abscess formation. Gynecol Obstet Invest 35(4):245–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burgmans JP, van Erp EJ, Brimicombe RW, Kazzaz BA (1997) Salmonella enteritidis in an endometriotic ovarian cyst. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 72(2):207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu Z, Lang J, Huang R, Li B, Zhang L (1998) Secondary infection of the ­ovarian endometriotic cysts. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 20(1):49–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Matsubayashi T, Hamajima T, Asano K, Mizukami A, Seguchi M, Kohno C, Inukai K, Tobayama S (2001) Salmonella infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst. Pediatr Int 43(2):164–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Le Bouedec G, Raynaud F, Glowaczower E, Quibant A, Dauplat J (1993) Ovarian abscess. A case of a dermoid cyst with a secondary infection. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 88(1):23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hiller N, Zagal I, Hadas-Halpern I (2000) Echinococcal ovarian cyst. A case report. J Reprod Med 45(3):224–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Konar K, Ghosh S, Konar S, Bhattacharya S, Sarkar S (2001) Bilateral ovarian hydatid disease – an unusual case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 44(4):495–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    El Fortia M, Elhajaji E, Elmadani B, Khalil M, Eldergash O, Elhamroush H (2006) Are they spherules of ovarian cystic teratoma or daughter cysts of echinococcosis? Ultraschall Med 27(6):582–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gurel H, Gurel SA (2008) Ovarian cystic teratoma with a pathognomonic appearance of multiple floating balls: a case report and investigation of common characteristics of the cases in the literature. Fertil Steril 90(5):2008.e17–2009.e17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Floberg J, Backdahl M, Silfersward C, Thomassen PA (1984) Postpartum ­perforation of the colon due to endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 63(2):183–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shiels WE, Dueno F, Hernandez E (1986) Ovarian dermoid cyst complicated by an entero-ovarian fistula. Radiology 160(2):443–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Allimant P, Bietiger M, Attipou L, Rosburger C, Babini E, Zeyer B, Dalcher G (1990) Sigmoid perforation in an ovarian cyst. J Chir (Paris) 127(11):559–560Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Skipper D, Moran B, Dormandy JA, Heald RJ (1995) Two cases of colo-­ovarian cyst fistula. Int J Colorectal Dis 10(2):70–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Landmann DD, Lewis RW (1988) Benign cystic ovarian teratoma with colorectal involvement. Report of a case and review of the literature. Dis Colon Rectum 31(10):808–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chamberlain RS, Kaufman HL, Danforth DN (1998) Enterocutaneous fistula in cancer patients: etiology, management, outcome, and impact on further treatment. Am Surg 64(12):1204–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Takai N, Utsunomiya H, Kawano Y, Nasu K, Narahara H, Miyakawa I (2002) Complete response to radiation therapy in a patient with chemotherapy-resistant ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Arch Gynecol Obstet 267(2):98–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Milczek T, Emerich J, Klasa-Mazurkiewicz D (2003) Surgical complications connected with intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. Ginekol Pol 74(9):817–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nicholson CP, Donohue JH, Thompson GB, Lewis JE (1992) A study of metastatic cancer found during inguinal hernia repair. Cancer 69(12):3008–3011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    van Heesewijk HP, Smit FW, Heitbrink MA, Kok FP (1990) Herniation of an ovarian cyst through the inguinal canal: diagnosis with CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 154(1):202–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Prasad KR, Aruna C, Saheb DA (1993) Primary leiomyoma of ovary. Indian J Med Sci 47(2):39–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Takeuchi K, Tsuzuki Y, Ando T, Sekihara M, Hara T, Kori T, Kawakami T, Ohno Y, Kuwano H (2003) Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the ovary growing into an inguinal hernia sac: report of a case. Surg Today 33(10):797–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Millar RC, Geelhoed GW, Ketcham AS (1975) Ovarian cancer presenting as umbilical hernia. J Surg Oncol 7(6):493–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wolfson N, Graves K, Pastorek JG 2nd, Suleman M (1991) Benign cystic ­teratoma manifested as an umbilical hernia. South Med J 84(3):405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Slizovskii GV, Sigailo ZS (1990) Ovarian polycystosis in a strangulated inguinal hernia in a newborn infant. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek 145(11):99–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Poenaru D, Jacobs DA, Kamal I (1999) Unusual findings in the inguinal canal: a report of four cases. Pediatr Surg Int 15(7):515–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Demir H, Scoccia B (2010) Internal herniation of adnexa through a defect of the broad ligament: case report and literature review. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 17(1):110–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Huang CS, Luo CC, Chao HC, Chu SM, Yu YJ, Yen JB (2003) The presentation of asymptomatic palpable movable mass in female inguinal hernia. Eur J Pediatr 162(7–8):493–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Noel Buy
    • 1
  • Michel Ghossain
    • 2
  1. 1.Service RadiologieHopital Hotel-DieuParisFrance
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyHotel Dieu de FranceBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations