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The Potential Role of Nonneuronal Cells in the Deep Brain Stimulation Mechanism

What Are Glia? What Are Their Functions? Could They Be Players in Deep Brain Stimulation?
  • Vinata Vedam-Mai
  • Michael S. Okun
  • Elly M. Hol
Chapter

Abstract

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical therapy of choice for a variety of treatment-resistant movement disorders, and many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mode of action of DBS is still unclear. It is unknown which neural cell types in the complex brain circuitry are involved in the workings of DBS, and how high-frequency stimulation of specific cell types may lead to the alleviation of a patient’s clinical symptoms. Although the existing theories of the working of DBS rely mostly on neurons, it is likely that other cell types could be involved. It is known that glia are heavily involved in synaptic communication through the formation of the tripartite synapse. Recent evidence indicates that DBS can result in direct activation of glial cells to release gliotransmitters. This in turn can have an effect on the tripartite synapse, as well as on downstream network activity. In this chapter we focus on reviewing the effects of DBS on nonneuronal cells, and speculate on the potential role of DBS-mediated glial activation.

Keywords

Deep Brain Stimulation Essential Tremor Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Neurogenic Niche Neural Network Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinata Vedam-Mai
    • 1
  • Michael S. Okun
    • 1
  • Elly M. Hol
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders Center, McKnight Brain InstituteUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Netherlands Institute for NeuroscienceRoyal Netherlands Academy of Arts and SciencesAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life SciencesUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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