Measuring Learners’ Co-Occurring Emotional Responses during Their Interaction with a Pedagogical Agent in MetaTutor

  • Jason M. Harley
  • François Bouchet
  • Roger Azevedo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7315)

Abstract

This paper extends upon traditional emotional measurement frameworks used by ITSs in which emotions are analyzed as single, discrete psychological experiences by examining co-occurring emotions (COEs) (e.g., Conati) through a novel methodological approach. In this paper we examined the occurrence of students’ embodiment of basic single discrete emotions (SDEs) and COEs (in addition to neutral) using an automatic facial expression recognition program, FaceReader 4.0. This analysis focuses on the sub goal setting task of learners’ (N = 50) interaction with MetaTutor, during which a pedagogical agent assisted students to set three relevant sub goals for their learning session. Results indicated that neutral and sadness were the SDEs experienced most by students and also the most represented emotions in COE pairs. COEs represented nearly a quarter of students’ embodied emotions.

Keywords

Emotions affect intelligent tutoring systems pedagogical agents co-occurring emotions learning human-computer interaction co-adaptation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    McQuiggan, S.W., Lester, J.C.: Modelling affect expression and recognition in an interactive learning environment. Inter. Journal of Learning Technology 4, 216–233 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pekrun, R.: Emotions as Drivers of Learning and Cognitive Development. In: Calvo, R.A., D’Mello, S.K. (eds.) New Perspectives on Affect and Learning Technologies, pp. 23–39. Springer, New York (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woolf, B., Burleson, W., Arroyo, I., Dragon, T., Cooper, D., Picard, R.: Affect-aware tutors: recognizing and responding to student affect. International Journal of Learning Technology 4, 129–164 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conati, C., Maclaren, H.: Empirically building and evaluating a probabilistic model of user affect. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 19, 267–303 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D’Mello, S.K., Craig, S.D., Graesser, A.C.: Multimethod assessment of affective experience and expression during deep learning. Inter. Jour. of Learn. Tech. 4, 165–187 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pekrun, R.: The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice. Educational Psychology Review 18, 315–341 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 17, 124–129 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    VicarVision: FaceReader 4.0 [Computer software]. Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azevedo, R., Behnagh, R., Duffy, M., Harley, J.M., Trevors, G.J.: Metacognition and self-regulated learning in student-centered leaning environments. In: Jonassen, D., Land, S. (eds.) Theoretical Foundations of Student-Center Learning Environments, pp. 216–260. Erlbaum, Mahwah (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ekman, P.: An argument for basic emotions. Cognition & Emotion 6, 169–200 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    van Kuilenburg, H., Wiering, M., den Uyl, M.: A Model Based Method for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition. In: Gama, J., Camacho, R., Brazdil, P.B., Jorge, A.M., Torgo, L. (eds.) ECML 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3720, pp. 194–205. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Terzis, V., Moridis, C.N., Economides, A.A.: Measuring instant emotions during a self-assessment test: the use of FaceReader. In: Proceedings of the 7th Inter. Conf. on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, pp. 18:1–18:4. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason M. Harley
    • 1
  • François Bouchet
    • 1
  • Roger Azevedo
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Educational and Counselling PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations