Measuring Learners’ Co-Occurring Emotional Responses during Their Interaction with a Pedagogical Agent in MetaTutor

  • Jason M. Harley
  • François Bouchet
  • Roger Azevedo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7315)


This paper extends upon traditional emotional measurement frameworks used by ITSs in which emotions are analyzed as single, discrete psychological experiences by examining co-occurring emotions (COEs) (e.g., Conati) through a novel methodological approach. In this paper we examined the occurrence of students’ embodiment of basic single discrete emotions (SDEs) and COEs (in addition to neutral) using an automatic facial expression recognition program, FaceReader 4.0. This analysis focuses on the sub goal setting task of learners’ (N = 50) interaction with MetaTutor, during which a pedagogical agent assisted students to set three relevant sub goals for their learning session. Results indicated that neutral and sadness were the SDEs experienced most by students and also the most represented emotions in COE pairs. COEs represented nearly a quarter of students’ embodied emotions.


Emotions affect intelligent tutoring systems pedagogical agents co-occurring emotions learning human-computer interaction co-adaptation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason M. Harley
    • 1
  • François Bouchet
    • 1
  • Roger Azevedo
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Educational and Counselling PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada

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