Tool Making

  • Ekkard Brinksmeier
Part of the Lecture Notes in Production Engineering book series (LNPE)


Tool materials for forming processes require good ductility with high hardness and high wear resistance. In the case of micro cold forming, additional aspects have to be considered in the tool material selection. The tool shape requires structures of microscopic dimensions, i.e. edge radii, bores and notches in submillimeter sizes, which need to be formed or machined. Viscous lubricants should be avoided, because they hinder the further handling of the workpieces. The use of tools without lubricant accelerates wear and might aggravate corrosion. Wear and corrosion debris on the tool surface are unacceptable for working with microscopic structures. Thermal effects of friction require additional attention to chemical processes at the surface.


Material Removal Material Removal Rate Heat Affected Zone Chip Thickness Tool Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Distance (mm)

Aa, xy

Laser affected area (m2)


Width of cut (µm)


Laser track distance (µm)


Ultrasonic amplitude (µm)


Depth of cut (µm)


Specific heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)


Material optical reflectivity


Optical absorption coefficient (m−1)


Diameter (µm)


Diffusion coefficient


Diamond grain size (µm)


Laser beam diameter (µm)


Laser subtracted diameter (M)


Elastic modulus (N/mm²)


Activation energy (J)


Force (N)


Normal force (N)


Focal distance (m)


Pulse frequency (laser repetition time) (Hz)


Ultrasonic frequency (Hz)


Feed per tooth (µm)


Knoop hardness


Laser affected depth (m)


Chip thickness (µm)


Uncut chip thickness (µm)


Material specific, critical uncut chip thickness (µm)


Maximum uncut chip thickness (µm)


Minimum uncut chip thickness (µm)


Laser subtracted depth (m)


Optical penetration depth (m)


Incident intensity (W m−2)


Peak incident intensity (W m−2)


Peak absorbed intensity (W m−2)


Chemical activity


Number of cutting edges


Thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Fracture toughness (MPa* m1/2)


Faraday constant


Preston constant


Optical damping constant


Pressure (N/mm²)


Average laser power (W)


Reactive sticking probability


Ultrasonic power (W)


Specific material removal rate (mm³/(mm*s))


Material removal rate (mm³/s)


Radius (mm)


Radius of the diffusing particles


Roughness, profile, arithmetic (nm)


Roughness, profile, average maximum height (m)

ra, x(y)

Laser affected radius (m)


Laser beam radius at the optical lens (m)


Laser melted radius (m)

rs, x(y)

Laser subtracted radius (m)


Thermal penetration radius (heat affected zone) (m)


Laser beam waist radius (m)


Cutting edge radius (µm)


Roughness, area, arithmetic (nm)


Roughness, area, core roughness depth (nm)


Roughness, area, reduced summit height (nm)


Roughness, area, root mean squared (nm)


Roughness, area, reduced valley depth (nm)


Time (s)


Absolute temperature (K)


Ambient (initial) temperature (K)


Absolute temperature of boiling (K)


Absolute temperature of melting (K)


Absolute surface temperature (K)


Material boiling time (s)


Dwell time of laser-material interaction (pulse duration) (s)


Electron-phonon scattering time (s)


Material removal time (s)

\( \dot{V} \)

Volume material removal rate (m3/s)

\( \dot{V}_{e} \)

Flow rate of the etchant (ml/min)


Cutting speed (m/min)


Feed velocity (mm/min)


Feed rate (m s−1)


Relative velocity (m/s)


Scanning speed (m s−1)


Tangential velocity (mm/s)


Drilling velocity (m s−1)


Densification ratio


Powder bed height for the nth layer (mm)


Platform lowering distance (mm)



Thermal expansion coefficient (K−1)


Angle of incidence (°)


Rake angle (°)


Thickness of the Nernst layer


Enthalpy of melting (J kg−1)


Enthalpy of vaporization (J kg−1)


Beam quality factor


Dynamic viscosity of the liquid


Angle of grit blasting (°)


Angle of molten material front (°)


External angle of laser light incidence (°)


Material density (kg m−3)


Density of the consolidated powder (g/cm³)


Density of the loose powder (g/cm³)


Thermal diffusion coefficient (m2 s−1)


Electron diffusion coefficient (m2 s−1)


Optical wavelength (M)


Laser fluence (J m−2)


Absorbed laser fluence (J m−2)


Fluence losses (J m−2)


Electrochemical potential


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Precision MachiningBremenGermany

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