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Beyond Lassos: Complete SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking for Timed Automata

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNPSE,volume 7273)


Timed automata (TAs) are a common formalism for modeling timed systems. Bounded model checking (BMC) is a verification method that searches for runs violating a property using a SAT or SMT solver. Previous SMT-based BMC approaches for TAs search for finite counter-examples and infinite lasso-shaped counter-examples. This paper shows that lasso-based BMC cannot detect counter-examples for some linear time specifications expressed, e.g., with LTL or Büchi automata. This paper introduces a new SMT-based BMC approach that can find a counter-example to any non-holding Büchi automaton or LTL specification and also, in theory, prove that a specification holds. Different BMC encodings tailored for the supported features of different SMT solvers are compared experimentally to lasso-based BMC and discretization-based SAT BMC.


  • Model Check
  • Reachability Problem
  • Bound Model Check
  • Time Automaton
  • Clock Constraint

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Kindermann, R., Junttila, T., Niemelä, I. (2012). Beyond Lassos: Complete SMT-Based Bounded Model Checking for Timed Automata. In: Giese, H., Rosu, G. (eds) Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems. FMOODS FORTE 2012 2012. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 7273. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-30792-8

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