Principles of the CoBRA Method

  • Adam Trendowicz
Part of the The Fraunhofer IESE Series on Software and Systems Engineering book series (SSENG)


The Cost Estimation, Benchmarking, and Risk Assessment (CoBRA) method combines multiple prediction approaches in that it aggregates techniques representing expert-based and data-driven estimation paradigms, within one hybrid estimation method. This chapter introduces the basic idea and terminology of the CoBRA method. Moreover, this chapter specifies the basic roles considered in the CoBRA method and the essential conceptual elements of the method.


Nominal Effort Effort Factor Project Effort Real Project Nominal Productivity 
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  1. L.C. Briand, K. El Emam, and F. Bomarius (1998), “COBRA: a hybrid method for software cost estimation, benchmarking, and risk assessment,” Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 390–399. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. IEEE-1045 (1993), IEEE Standard for Software Productivity Metrics, IEEE Std 1045–1992, approved by IEEE Standards Board on 17 September 1992. Approved by American National Standards Institute on 23 March 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer IESEKaiserslauternGermany

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