Abdominal Ultrasound

  • Carlos Nicolau
  • Pedro Seguí
  • Jose Luís del Cura
  • Blanca Paño
Part of the Learning Imaging book series (LEARN)


Although in developed countries the availability of CT and MRI equipment has made these techniques widely used, ultrasound is the most available image technique worldwide for the study of abdominal diseases. However, the utilization of ultrasound in abdomen is clearly lower in the USA compared with Europe or Asia. Differences between health systems, including organizing issues like the role of sonographers, may be behind this difference. Moreover, ultrasound is highly operator dependent, and the performance of the technique may be very variable even within the same health organization jeopardizing the confidence of the clinicians in the technique.


Acute Cholecystitis Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Hydatid Cyst Gallbladder Carcinoma Gallbladder Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Abbott RM, Levy AD, Aguilera NS, Gorospe L, Thompson WM (2004) From the archives of the AFIP: primary vascular neoplasms of the spleen: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 24:1137–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht T, Hohmann J, Oldenburg A, Skrok J, Wolf KJ (2004) Detection and characterization of liver metastases. Eur Radiol 14(Suppl 8):P25–P33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett GL, Balthazar EJ (2003) Ultrasound and CT evaluation of emergent gallbladder pathology. Radiol Clin North Am 41:1203–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett GL, Slywotzky CM, Cantera M (2010) Unusual manifestations and complications of endometriosis – spectrum of imaging findings: pictorial review. Am J Roentgenol 194(6 Suppl):WS34–WS46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benter T, Klühs L, Teichgräber U (2011) Sonography of the spleen. J Ultrasound Med 30:1281–1293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berrocal T, Lopez-Pereira P, Arjonilla A et al (2002) Anomalies of the distal ureter, bladder, and urethra in children: embryologic, radiologic and pathologic features. Radiographics 22:1139–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berton F, Gola G, Wilson SR (2007) Sonography of benign conditions of the anal canal: an update. AJR Am J Roentgenol 189:765–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bortoff GA, Chen MY, Ott DJ, Wolfman NT, Routh WD (2000) Gallbladder stones: imaging and intervention. Radiographics 20:751–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boscak AR, Al-Hawary M (2006) Best cases from the AFIP: adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. Radiographics 26:941–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan L, Shin LK, Pai RK (2011) Pathologic continuum of acute appendicitis: sonographic findings and clinical management implications. Ultrasound Q 27:71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daneman A, Navarro OM, Somers GR (2010) Renal pyramids: focused sonography of normal and pathologic processes. Radiographics 30:1287–1307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dyer RB, Chean MYM, Zagoria RJ (1998) Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics 18:1405–1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Farrelly C, Delaney H, McDermott R, Malone D (2008) Do all non-calcified echogenic renal lesions found on ultrasound need further evaluation with CT? Abdom Imaging 33:44–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Francois M, Tostirint I, Mercadal L et al (2000) MR imaging features of acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis. Am J Kidney Dis 35:745–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanbidge AE, Lynch D, Wilson SR (2003) US of the peritoneum. Radiographics 23:663–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hensen JH, Van Breda AC, Puylaert JB (2006) Abdominal wall endometriosis: clinical presentation and imaging features with emphasis on sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 186:616–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jamadar DA, Jacobson JA, Morag Y et al (2006) Sonography of inguinal region hernias. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jamadar DA, Jacobson JA, Morag Y, Girish G, Dong Q, Al-Hawary M, Franz MG (2007) Characteristic locations of inguinal region and anterior abdominal wall hernias: sonographic appearances and identification of clinical pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:1356–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jeong JY, Kim SH, Sim JS et al (2002) MR findings of renal cortical necrosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26:232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karcaaltincaba M, Akhan O (2007) Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing. Eur J Radiol 61:33–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kessler N, Cyteval C, Gallix B et al (2004) Appendicitis: evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of US, Doppler US, and laboratory findings. Radiology 230:472–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim KW, Kim MJ, Lee SS, Kim HJ, Shin YM, Kim PN, Lee MG (2008) Sparing of fatty infiltration around focal hepatic lesions in patients with hepatic steatosis: sonographic appearance with CT and MRI correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 190:1018–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kinoshita LL, Yee J, Nash SR (2000) Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: imaging features. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174:467–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee EK, Dickstein RJ, Kamat AM (2011) Imaging of urothelial cancers: what the urologist needs to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol 196:1249–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levy AD, Murakata LA, Rohrmann CA Jr (2001) Gallbladder carcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 21:295–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lucey BC, Stuhlfaut JW, Soto JA (2005) Mesenteric lymph nodes seen at imaging: causes and significance. Radiographics 25:351–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Madeb R, Shapiro I, Rothschild E et al (2000) Evaluation of ureterocele with Doppler sonography. J Clin Ultrasound 28:425–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Merlini E, Lelli Chiesa P (2004) Obstructive ureterocele – an ongoing challenge. World J Urol 22:107–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Connor OJ, Maher NM (2011) Imaging of cholecystitis. Am J Roentgenol 196:W367–W374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Patlas M, Farkas A, Fisher D et al (2001) Ultrasound vs CT for the detection of ureteric stones in patients with renal colic. Br J Radiol 74:901–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pedrosa I, Saíz A, Arrazola J, Ferreirós J, Pedrosa CS (2000) Hydatid disease: radiologic and pathologic features and complications. Radiographics 20(3):795–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Puylaert JB (2003) Ultrasonography of the acute abdomen: gastrointestinal conditions. Radiol Clin North Am 41:1227–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ripollés T, Agramunt M, Martínez MJ et al (2003) The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis, management and evolutive prognosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: a review of 208 patients. Eur Radiol 13:2587–2595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rooholamini SA, Tehrani NS, Razavi MK (1994) Imaging of gallbladder carcinoma. Radiographics 14:291–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rybkin AV, Thoeni RF (2007) Current concepts in imaging of appendicitis. Radiol Clin North Am 45:411–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sefzzek RJ, Beckman I, Lupentin AR, Dash N (1984) Sonography of acute cortical necrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 142:553–554Google Scholar
  37. Sheafor DH, Hertzberg BS, Freed KS et al (2000) Nonenhanced helical CT and US in the emergency evaluation of patients with renal colic: prospective comparison. Radiology 217:792–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sheth S, Horton KM, Garland MR (2003) Mesenteric neoplasms: CT appearances of primary and secondary tumors and differential diagnosis. Radiographics 23:457–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shuman WP, Mack LA, Rogers JV (1981) Diffuse nephrocalcinosis: hyperechoic sonographic appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 136:830–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Siegel CL, Middleton WD, Teefey SA, McClennan BL (1996) Angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma: US differentiation. Radiology 198:789–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sohaib SA, Koh DM, Husband JE (2008) The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 191:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Suh JM, Cronan JJ, Monchik JM (2008) Primary hyperparathyroidism: is there an increased prevalence of renal stone disease? AJR Am J Roentgenol 191:908–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tamm EP, Silverman PM, Shuman WP (2003) Evaluation of the patient with flank pain and possible ureteral calculus. Radiology 228:319–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Totaro A, Pinto F, Brescia A et al (2010) Imaging in bladder cancer: present role and future perspectives. Urol Int 85:373–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ünsal A, Çaliskan E, Erol H et al (2011) The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria. Eur J Radiol 79:7–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van Breda Vriesman AC, Engelbrecht MR, Smithuis RH, Puylaert JB (2007) Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening: differential diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188:495–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wong-You-Cheong J, Woodward P, Manning M et al (2006) Neoplasms of the urinary bladder: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 26:553–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yilmaz S, Sindel T, Arslan G et al (1998) Renal colic: comparison of spiral CT, US and IVU in the detection of ureteral calculi. Eur Radiol 8:212–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yoon JH, Cha SS, Han SS (2006) Gallbladder adenomyomatosis: imaging findings. Abdom Imaging 31:555–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zerin JM, Baker DR, Casale JA (2000) Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features. Pediatr Radiol 30:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Nicolau
    • 1
  • Pedro Seguí
    • 2
  • Jose Luís del Cura
    • 3
  • Blanca Paño
    • 1
  1. 1.Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico (CDIC)Hospital ClinicBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Servicio de RadiodiagnósticoHospital Universitario Reina SofíaCordobaSpain
  3. 3.Servicio de RadiodiagnósticoHospital BasurtoBilbaoSpain

Personalised recommendations