Effects of Autonomous Mission Management on Crew Performance, Behavior, and Physiology: Insights from Ground-Based Experiments

  • Peter G. Roma
  • Steven R. Hursh
  • Robert D. Hienz
  • Zabecca S. Brinson
  • Eric D. Gasior
  • Joseph V. Brady
Chapter
Part of the Space Technology Library book series (SPTL, volume 29)

Abstract

Technical constraints during long-duration space expeditions will limit the ability for Earth-based management of astronaut crews and will thus increase the prevalence of autonomous operations. To provide experimentally-derived insights on the effects of crew autonomy, we utilized a laboratory-based simulation model to assess crew performance effectiveness and biopsychosocial adaptation under rigid schedule-based management of crew activities by Mission Control versus more flexible, autonomous management of activities by the crews themselves. In 2 separate experiments, 33 research volunteers formed 11 long-term 3-person mixed-gender crews that were extensively trained over several months in an interdependent computer-based planetary surface exploration task. Following training, in Experiment 1, three crews each completed two different types of 3–4 h test missions: Scheduled missions, in which they were directed by Mission Control according to a strict topographic and temporal region-searching sequence, and Autonomous missions, in which the crews received minimal baseline support from Mission Control and were free to establish their own protocols for exploring the planetary surface. In Experiment 2, eight 3-person crews were trained in identical fashion as Experiment 1, except these crews were each tested under four different scenarios, with the Scheduled and Autonomous sessions completed either under normal conditions of full communications capabilities or following the unexpected loss of audio and text-messaging functions. Overall, autonomous mission management led to improved task performance (more high-valued geologic samples were retrieved), increased subjective self-reports of positive mood, fewer references to negative emotions, greater use of socially-referent language in unstructured debriefing logs, and attenuated physiological stress reactivity. Consistent with observational field research, these laboratory-based investigations provide powerful experimental evidence supporting a causal relationship between crew autonomy and improved performance, enhanced psychosocial adaptation, and sustained biobehavioral health. Future work should systematically examine interactions with culture and personality in diverse multinational crews, assess the effects of other operationally-relevant stressors such as heavy workload and circadian disruption, and evaluate the effects of bounded autonomy in space analogue environments and on the International Space Station using rigorous experimental methods. The controlled laboratory data presented herein contribute to an emerging empirical knowledge base on crew autonomy which the international astronautics community may build upon for future research and ultimately draw upon when designing and managing long-duration exploratory missions.

Keywords

Behavioral Health Planetary Surface Autonomous Condition Person Plural Psychosocial Adaptation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the US National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58-NBPF01602 and Directed Research Project NBPF00008. Portions of this work were previously published by the authors as part of a peer-reviewed scientific journal article (Roma et al. 2011), and were used with permission from Elsevier. The authors have no interests that may be perceived as conflicting with the research presented herein, and were entirely responsible for the design of the studies, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, the preparation of the manuscript, and the decision to submit for publication.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter G. Roma
    • 1
  • Steven R. Hursh
    • 1
  • Robert D. Hienz
    • 1
  • Zabecca S. Brinson
    • 2
  • Eric D. Gasior
    • 2
  • Joseph V. Brady
    • 1
  1. 1.Institutes for Behavior ResourcesJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Institutes for Behavior ResourcesBaltimoreUSA

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