Phylogenetic Cladograms: Tools for Analyzing Biomedical Data

  • Mones S. Abu-AsabEmail author
  • Jim DeLeoEmail author
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


This chapter provides an introduction to phylogenetic cladograms – a systems biology evolutionary-based computational methodology that emphasizes the importance of considering multilevel heterogeneity in living systems when mining data related to these systems. We start by defining intelligence as the ability to predict, because prediction is a very important objective in mining data, especially biomedical data (Sect. 16.1). We then give a brief review of artificial intelligence (AI) and computational intelligence (CI) (Sects. 16.2, 16.3), provide a conciliatory overview of CI, and suggest that phylogenetic cladograms which provide hypotheses about speciation and inheritance relationships should be considered to be a CI methodology. We then discuss heterogeneity in biomedical data and talk about data types, how statistical methods blur heterogeneity, and the different results obtained between more traditional CI methodologies (phenetic) and phylogenetic techniques. Finally, we give an example of constructing and interpreting a phylogenetic cladogram tree.


Computational Intelligence Prophylactic Mastectomy Omics Data Reduction Mammoplasty Turing Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



nondeterministic polynomial-time hard


artificial intelligence


artificial neural network


classification and regression trees


computational intelligence


copy number variation


deoxyribonucleic acid


estrogen receptor-negative


estrogen receptor-positive


endoplasmic reticulum


genome-wide association scan


genomatix pathway system


maximum parsimony


National Center for Biotechnology Information


normal epithelial


prophylactic mastectomy


reduction mammoplasty


ribonucleic acid


receiver operating characteristic


single-nucleotide polymorphism




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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Eye InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory for Informatics DevelopmentNational Institutes of Health Clinical CenterBethesdaUSA

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