Advertisement

Discrimination Data Analysis: A Multi-disciplinary Bibliography

  • Andrea RomeiEmail author
  • Salvatore Ruggieri
Part of the Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics book series (SAPERE, volume 3)

Abstract

Discrimination data analysis has been investigated for the last fifty years in a large body of social, legal, and economic studies. Recently, discrimination discovery and prevention has become a blooming research topic in the knowledge discovery community. This chapter provides a multi-disciplinary annotated bibliography of the literature on discrimination data analysis, with the intended objective to provide a common basis to researchers from a multi-disciplinary perspective.We cover legal, sociological, economic and computer science references.

Keywords

Racial Discrimination Statistical Discrimination Major League Baseball Mortgage Lending Mortgage Default 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aalbers, M.: What types of neighbourhoods are redlined? Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 22(2), 177–198 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. Agier, I., Szafarz, A.: Microfinance and gender: Is there a glass ceiling in loan size? In: CEB Working Paper No. 10-047, Université Libre de Bruxelles (2010), http://ssrn.com
  3. Agresti, A.: Categorical data analysis, 2nd edn. Wiley-Interscience (2002)Google Scholar
  4. Ahmed, A.M., Hammarstedt, M.: Discrimination in the rental housing market: A field experiment on the internet. Journal of Urban Economics 64(2), 362–372 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. Aigner, D.J., Cain, G.G.: Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 30, 175–187 (1977)Google Scholar
  6. Albareto, G., Mistrulli, P.: Bridging the gap between migrants and the banking system (Economic working paper No. 794). Economic Research Department, Bank of Italy (2011), http://www.bancaditalia.it Google Scholar
  7. Aldrich, E.M., Arcidiacono, P.S., Vigdor, J.L.: Do people value racial diversity? Evidence from Nielsen ratings. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 5(1), Art. 4 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. Alesina, A.F., Ferrara, E.L.: A test of racial bias in capital sentencing (Working Paper No. 16981). National Bureau of Economic Research (2011), http://www.nber.org
  9. Alpert, G.P., Smith, M.R., Dunham, R.G.: Toward a better benchmark: Assessing the utility of not-at-fault traffic crash data in racial profiling research. Justice Research and Policy 6(1), 43–70 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. Altonji, J.G., Blank, R.M.: Race and gender in the labor market. In: Ashenfelter, O., Card, D. (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics-Part C, vol. 3, pp. 3143–3259. Elsevier (1999)Google Scholar
  11. Altonji, J.G., Pierret, C.R.: Employer learning and statistical discrimination. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116(1), 313–350 (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Anbarci, N., Lee, J.: Speed discounting and racial disparities: Evidence from speeding tickets in Boston (Discussion Paper No. 3903). Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA (2008), http://ftp.iza.org
  13. Andreoni, J., Petrie, R.: Beauty, gender and stereotypes: Evidence from laboratory experiments. Journal of Economic Psychology 29(1), 73–93 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. Antonovics, K.L., Arcidiacono, P., Walsh, R.: Games and discrimination: Lessons from the Weakest Link. Journal of Human Resources 40(4), 918–947 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. Antonovics, K.L., Arcidiacono, P., Walsh, R.: The effects of gender interactions in the lab and in the field. Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1), 152–162 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. Antonovics, K.L., Knight, B.G.: A new look at racial profiling: Evidence from the Boston Police Department (Working Paper No. 10634). National Bureau of Economic Research (2009), http://www.nber.org
  17. Anwar, S., Fang, H.: An alternative test of racial prejudice in motor vehicle searches: Theory and evidence. American Economic Review 96(1), 127–151 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. Arai, M., Moa Bursell, M., Nekby, L.: Between meritocracy and ethnic discrimination: The gender difference (Research Papers in Economics No. 2008:4). Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA (2008), http://ftp.iza.org
  19. Armstrong, M.: Recent developments in the economics of price discrimination. In: Blundell, R., Newey, W.K., Persson, T. (eds.) Proc. of World Congress on Advances in Economics and Econometrics Theory and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 1–46. Cambridge University Press (2006)Google Scholar
  20. Arrow, K.J.: The theory of discrimination. In: Ashenfelter, O., Rees, A. (eds.) Discrimination in Labor Markets, pp. 3–33. Princeton University Press (1971)Google Scholar
  21. Australian Legislation: (a) Age Discrimination Act, 2004; (b) Australian Human Rights Commission Act, 1986; (c) Disability Discrimination Act, 1992; (d) Racial Discrimination Act, 1975; (e) Sex Discrimination Act, 1984; (f) Victoria Equal Opportunity Act, 1995, (g) Queensland Anti Discrimination Act, 1991 (2011), http://www.hreoc.gov.au
  22. Ayres, I.: Further evidence of discrimination in new car negotiations and estimates of its cause. Michigan Law Review 94(1), 109–147 (1995)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  23. Ayres, I., Siegelman, P.: Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car. The American Economic Review 85(3), 304–321 (1995)Google Scholar
  24. Ayres, I., Vars, F.E., Zakariya, N.: To insure prejudice: Racial disparities in taxicab tipping. Yale Law Journal 114(7), 1613–1674 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. Bagues, M.F., Villadoniga, M.J.P.: Why do i like people like me? (Working Paper No. 2008-06). Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía de la Empresa (2008), http://papers.ssrn.com
  26. Baker, A., Phillipson, G.: Policing, profiling and discrimination law: US and European approaches compared. Journal of Global Ethics 7(1), 105–124 (2011)Google Scholar
  27. Balsa, A.I., Mcguire, T.G., Meredith, L.S.: Testing for statistical discrimination in health care. Health Services Research 40(1), 227–252 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. Bamforth, N., Malik, M., O’Cinneide, C.: Discrimination law: Theory & context, text and materials, 1st edn. Sweet & Maxwell (2008)Google Scholar
  29. Banerjee, A., Bertrand, M., Datta, S., Mullainathan, S.: Labor market discrimination in Delhi: Evidence from a field experiment. Journal of Comparative Economics 37(1), 14–27 (2009)Google Scholar
  30. Becker, G.S.: The economics of discrimination (economic research studies), 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1971)Google Scholar
  31. Bell, M.R.: Anti-discrimination law and the European Union. Oxford University Press (2002)Google Scholar
  32. Belot, M., Bhaskar, V., van de Ven, J.: Beauty and the sources of discrimination (Working Paper No. 241). ESRC Centre for Economic Learning and Social Evolution (2008), http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk
  33. Bendick, M.: Situation testing for employment discrimination in the United States of America. Horizons Stratégiques 3(5), 17–39 (2007)Google Scholar
  34. Bendick, M., Rodriguez, R.E., Jayaraman, S.: Employment discrimination in upscale restaurants: Evidence from matched pair testing. Social Science Journal 47(4), 802–818 (2010)Google Scholar
  35. Berri, D., Simmons, R.: Race and the evaluation of signal callers in the National Football League. Journal of Sports Econonomics 10(1), 23–43 (2009)Google Scholar
  36. Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., Mullainathan, S.: Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review 95(2), 94–98 (2005)Google Scholar
  37. Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S.: Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review 94(4), 991–1013 (2004)Google Scholar
  38. Black, S.E., Brainerd, E.: Importing equality? The impact of globalization on gender discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 57(4), 540–559 (2004)Google Scholar
  39. Black, S.E., Strahan, P.E.: The division of spoils: Rent-sharing and discrimination in a regulated industry. American Economic Review 91(4), 814–831 (2001)Google Scholar
  40. Blackburn, M.L., Vermilyea, T.: A comparison of unexplained racial disparities in bank-level and market-level models of mortgage lending. Journal of Financial Services Research 29(2), 125–147 (2006)Google Scholar
  41. Blackburn, M.L., Vermilyea, T.: The role of information externalities and scale economies in home mortgage lending decisions. Journal of Urban Economics 61(1), 71–85 (2007)Google Scholar
  42. Blalock, G., DeVaro, J.L., Leventhal, S., Simon, D.H.: Gender bias in power relationships: Evidence from police traffic stops (Working Paper). School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University (2007), http://ssrn.com Google Scholar
  43. Blanchard, L., Zhao, B., Yinger, J.: Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs? Journal of Urban Economics 63(2), 467–497 (2008)Google Scholar
  44. Blanchflower, D.G., Levine, P.B., Zimmerman, D.J.: Discrimination in the small-business credit market. The Review of Economics and Statistics 85(4), 930–943 (2003)Google Scholar
  45. Blank, E., Venkatachalam, P., McNeil, L., Green, R.: Racial discrimination in mortgage lending in Washington, D.C.: A mixed methods approach. The Review of Black Political Economy 33(2), 9–30 (2005)Google Scholar
  46. Blank, R.M., Dabady, M., Citro, C.F. (eds.): Measuring racial discrimination - panel on methods for assessing discrimination. National Academies Press (2004)Google Scholar
  47. Bocian, D.G., Ernst, K.S., Li, W.: Race, ethnicity and subprime home loan pricing. Journal of Economics and Business 60(1-2), 110–124 (2008)Google Scholar
  48. Booth, A.L., Leigh, A.: Do employers discriminate by gender? A field experiment in female-dominated occupations. Economics Letters 107(2), 236–238 (2010)Google Scholar
  49. Booth, A.L., Leigh, A., Varganova, E.: Does racial and ethnicdiscrimination vary across minority groups? Evidence from a field experiment (Discussion paper No. 4947). Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA (2010), http://ftp.iza.org
  50. Bosch, M., Carnero, M.A., Farr, L.: Information and discrimination in the rental housing market: Evidence from a field experiment. Regional Science and Urban Economics 40(1), 11–19 (2010)Google Scholar
  51. Brevoort, K.P.: Credit card redlining revisited. Review of Economics and Statistics 93(2), 714–724 (2011)Google Scholar
  52. Brown, C.L., Simpson, W.G.: An analysis of alternative methodologies and interpretations of mortgage discrimination research using simulated data. Academy of Banking Studies Journal 9(2), 65–75 (2010)Google Scholar
  53. Brown, R.: Prejudice: Its social psychology, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell (2010)Google Scholar
  54. Broyles, P., Keen, B.: Consumer discrimination in the NBA: An examination of the effect of race on the value of basketball trading cards. The Social Science Journal 47(1), 162–171 (2010)Google Scholar
  55. Cain, G.G.: The economic analysis of labor market discrimination: A survey. In: Ashenfelter, O., Layard, R. (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 1, pp. 693–781. Elsevier (1987)Google Scholar
  56. Calders, T., Verwer, S.: Three naive bayes approaches for discriminationfree classification. Data Mining & Knowledge Discovery 21(2), 277–292 (2010)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  57. Campbell, R., Roberts, B., Rogers, K.: An evaluation of lender redlining in allocation of unsecured consumer credit. Urban Studies 45(5), 1243–1254 (2008)Google Scholar
  58. Carlsson, M., Rooth, D.-O.: Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data. Labour Economics 14(4), 716–729 (2007)Google Scholar
  59. Castillo, M., Petrie, R.: Discrimination in the lab: Does information trump appearance? Games and Economic Behavior 68(1), 50–59 (2010)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  60. Cavalluzzo, K., Cavalluzzo, L., Wolken, J.: Competition, small business financing, and discrimination: Evidence from a new survey. Journal of Business 75(4), 641–680 (2002)Google Scholar
  61. Chan, J.: Racial profiling and police subculture. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 53(1), 75–78 (2011)Google Scholar
  62. Chan, S., Gedal, M., Been, V., Haughwout, A.F.: The role of neighborhood characteristics in mortgage default risk: Evidence from New York City (Working Paper No. 4551). NYUWagner School and Furman Center for Real Estate & Urban Policy (2010), http://www.ssrn.com
  63. Charles, K.K., Guryan, J.: Prejudice and wages: An empirical assessment of becker’s the economics of discrimination. Journal of Political Economy 116(5), 773–809 (2008)Google Scholar
  64. Charles, K.K., Guryan, J.: Studying discrimination: Fundamental challenges and recent progress. Annual Review of Economics 3, 479–511 (2011)Google Scholar
  65. Charness, G., Kuhn, P.: Lab labor: What can labor economists learn from the lab? In: Ashenfelter, O., Card, D. (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 4, pp. 229–330. Elsevier (2011)Google Scholar
  66. Cheng, N., Chandramouli, R., Subbalakshmi, K.: Author gender identification from text. Digital Investigation 8(1), 78–88 (2011)Google Scholar
  67. Cheng, P., Lin, Z., Liu, Y.: Do women pay more for mortgages? The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 1–18 (2009) (published online: November 17, 2009)Google Scholar
  68. Cheung, S.: A test of employer learning in the labour market for young Australians. Applied Economics Letters 17(1), 93–98 (2010)Google Scholar
  69. Chien, C.-F., Chen, L.: Data mining to improve personnel selection and enhance human capital: A case study in high-technology industry. Expert Systems with Applications 34(1), 280–290 (2008)Google Scholar
  70. Chopin, I., Do, T.U.: Developing anti-discrimination law in europe. European Network of Legal Experts in Anti-Discrimination (2010), http://ec.europa.eu
  71. Cipriani, G.P., Zago, A.: Productivity or discrimination? beauty and the exams. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 73(3), 428–447 (2011)Google Scholar
  72. Clarke, J., Roy, N., Courchane, M.: On the robustness of racial discrimination findings in mortgage lending studies. Applied Economics 41(18), 2279–2297 (2009)Google Scholar
  73. Clifton, C.: Privacy preserving data mining: How do we mine data when we aren’t allowed to see it? In: Proc. of the ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD 2003), Tutorial (2003), http://www.cs.purdue.edu
  74. Cohen-Cole, E.: Credit card redlining (Working Paper No. QAU08-1). Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (2009), http://www.bos.frb.org
  75. Combes, P.-P., Decreuse, B., Laouenan, M., Trannoy, A.: A test of customer discrimination: Theory and evidence from the french labor market (2011), preliminary version, http://econ.sciences-po.fr
  76. Coyne, C.J., Isaacs, J., Schwartz, J.: Entrepreneurship and the taste for discrimination. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 20(4), 609–627 (2010)Google Scholar
  77. Dickinson, D.L., Oaxaca, R.L.: Statistical discrimination in labor markets: An experimental analysis. Southern Economic Journal 76(1), 16–31 (2009)Google Scholar
  78. Dietrich, J.: Does multiple jeopardy exist in mortgage markets? (Economics Working Paper No. 2009-3). Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (2009), http://www.occ.treas.gov
  79. Dietrich, J., Johannsson, H.: Searching for age and gender discrimination in mortgage lending (Economics Working Paper No. 2005-2). Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (2005), http://www.occ.treas.gov
  80. Ding, L., Ratcliffe, J., Stegman, M., Quercia, R.: Neighborhood patterns of high-cost lending: The case of Atlanta. Journal of Affordable Housing 17(3), 194–211 (2008)Google Scholar
  81. Dobson, A.J., Barnett, A.G.: Introduction to generalized linear models, 3rd edn. Chapman and Hall/CRC (2008)Google Scholar
  82. Doleac, J.L., Stein, L.C.: The visible hand: Race and online market outcomes (Discussion Paper No. 09-015). Stanford Instititute for Economic Policy Research (2010), http://www.stanford.edu
  83. Donohue, J.J.: The law and economics of antidiscrimination law. In: Polinsky, A.M., Shavell, S. (eds.) Handbook of Law and Economics, pp. 1387–1472. Elsevier (2007)Google Scholar
  84. Drydakis, N.: Sexual orientation discrimination in the labour market. Labour Economics 16(4), 364–372 (2009)Google Scholar
  85. Dymski, G.: Discrimination in the credit and housing markets: Findings and challenges. In: Rodgers, W. (ed.) Handbook on the Economics of Discrimination, 3rd edn., Edward Elgar Publishing (2006)Google Scholar
  86. Dymski, G.A., Hernandez, J., Mohanty, L.: Race, power, and the subprime/foreclosure crisis: A mesoanalysis (Economics Working Paper No. 669). Levy Economics Institute of Bard College (2011), http://ssrn.com
  87. Edelberg, W.: Racial dispersion in consumer credit interest rates (Finance and Economics Discussion Series Nos. 2007–2028). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, U.S. (2007)Google Scholar
  88. Edin, P.-A., Lagerstrøm, J.: Blind dates: quasi-experimental evidence on discrimination (Working Paper No. 4). Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation (2006), http://www.ifau.se
  89. Ellis, E.: Eu anti-discrimination law. Oxford University Press (2005)Google Scholar
  90. ENAR. European network against racism, fact sheet 35: Positive actions (2008), http://www.enar-eu.org
  91. Engel, R.S.: A critique of the “outcome test” in racial profiling research. Justice Quarterly 25(1), 1–36 (2008)Google Scholar
  92. Engel, R.S., Calnon, J.M.: Comparing benchmark methodologies for police-citizen contacts: Traffic stop data collection for the Pennsylvania State Police. Police Quarterly 7(1), 97–125 (2004)Google Scholar
  93. Engel, R.S., Calnon, J.M., Bernard, T.J.: Theory and racial profiling: Shortcomings and future directions in research. Justice Quarterly 19(2), 1–36 (2002)Google Scholar
  94. E.U. Agency for Fundamental Rights. Handbook on European nondiscrimination law. European Court of Human Rights (2011), http://fra.europa.eu
  95. European Union Legislation: (a) European Convention on Human Rights, 1950; (b) Racial Equality Directive, 2000; (c) Employment Equality Directive, 2000; (d) Gender Goods and Services Directive, 2004; (e) Gender Employment Directive, 2006; (f) Equal Treatment Directive (proposal), 2008 (2011), http://eur-lex.europa.eu
  96. Ezeala-Harrison, F., Glover, G., Shaw-Jackson, J.: Housing loan patterns toward minority borrowers in Mississippi: Analysis of some micro data evidence of redlining. The Review of Black Political Economy 35(1), 43–54 (2008)Google Scholar
  97. Falk, A., Walkowitz, G., Wirth, W.: Do ex-offenders face discrimination in the labor market? Because of expected inferior reciprocity (2008) (unpublished manuscript), http://www.uni-graz.at
  98. Falk, A., Zehnder, C.: Discrimination and in-group favoritism in a citywide trust experiment (Working Paper No. iewwp318). Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich (2007), http://www.iew.uzh.ch
  99. Fang, H., Moro, A.: Theories of statistical discrimination and affirmative action: A survey. In: Benhabib, J., Jackson, M., Bisin, A. (eds.) Handbook of Social Economics, vol. 1A, pp. 134–200. Elsevier (2010)Google Scholar
  100. Farber, H.S., Gibbons, R.: Learning and wage dynamics. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 111(4), 1007–1047 (1996)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  101. Farrell, A., McDevitt, J.: Identifying and measuring racial profiling by the police. Sociology Compass 4(1), 77–88 (2010)Google Scholar
  102. Feltovich, N., Papageorgiou, C.: An experimental study of statistical discrimination by employers. Southern Economic Journal 70(4), 837–849 (2004)Google Scholar
  103. Fershtman, C., Gneezy, U.: Discrimination in a segmented society: An experimental approach. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116(1), 351–377 (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  104. Finkelstein, M.O., Levin, B. (eds.): Statistics for lawyers, vol. 2. Springer (2001)Google Scholar
  105. Flabbi, L.: Prejudice and gender differentials in the US labor market in the last twenty years. Journal of Econometrics 156(1), 190–200 (2010)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  106. Fleiss, J.L., Levin, B., Paik, M.C.: Statistical methods for rates and proportions, 3rd edn. Wiley (2003)Google Scholar
  107. Foley, M., Smith, F.H.: Consumer discrimination in professional sports: New evidence from Major League Baseball. Applied Economics Letters 14(13), 951–955 (2007)Google Scholar
  108. Frick, B., Deutscher, C.: Salary determination in the Ge rman “Bundesliga”: A panel study (IASE Conference Paper No. 0811). International Association of Sports Economists (2009)Google Scholar
  109. Friedman, S., Squires, G.D., Galvan, C.: Cybersegregation in Boston and Dallas: Is Neil a more desirable tenant than Tyrone or Jorge? (Presented at the Population Association of America 2010 Annual Meeting (2010), http://paa2010.princeton.edu
  110. Gabbidon, S.L., Craig, R., Okafo, N., Marzette, L.N., Peterson, S.A.: The consumer racial profiling experiences of Black students at historically Black colleges and universities: An exploratory study. Journal of Criminal Justice 36(4), 354–361 (2008)Google Scholar
  111. Gabbidon, S.L., Higgins, G.E., Nelson, M.: Public support for racial profiling in airports: Results from a statewide poll. Criminal Justice Policy Review (2011) (published online: March 14, 2011)Google Scholar
  112. Gardner, J.: Deterrence externalities and racial bias in law enforcement (Working Paper No. 88). Carnegie Mellon University (2009), http://www.heinz.cmu.edu
  113. Gelman, A., Fagan, J., Kiss, A.: An analysis of the new york city police departments “stop-and-frisk” policy in the context of claims of racial bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association 102(479), 813–823 (2007)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  114. Goddard, J., Wilson, J.O.S.: Racial discrimination in English professional football: Evidence from an empirical analysis of players’ career progression. Cambridge Journal of Economics 33(2), 295–316 (2009)Google Scholar
  115. Goenner, C.: Discrimination and mortgage lending in Boston: The effects of model uncertainty. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 40(3), 260–285 (2010)Google Scholar
  116. Goldberg, P.K.: Dealer price discrimination in new car purchases: Evidence from the consumer expenditure survey. Journal of Political Economy 104(3), 622–654 (1996)Google Scholar
  117. Goldin, C., Rouse, C.: Orchestrating impartiality: The impact of ”blind” auditions on female musicians. American Economic Review 90(4), 715–741 (2000)Google Scholar
  118. Greene, W.H.: Econometric analysis, 7th edn. Prentice-Hall (2008)Google Scholar
  119. Greenwald, A.G., Krieger, L.H.: Implicit bias: Scientific foundations. California Law Review 94(4), 945–967 (2006)Google Scholar
  120. Grogger, J.T.: Speech patterns and racial wage inequality. Journal of Human Resources 46(1), 1–25 (2011)Google Scholar
  121. Grytten, J., Skau, I., Sørensen, R.: Do expert patients get better treatment than others? Agency discrimination and statistical discrimination in obstetrics. Journal of Health Economics 30(1), 163–180 (2011)Google Scholar
  122. Güth, W., Kocher, M.G., Popova, V.: Co-employment of permanently and temporarily employed agents (Jena Economic Research Paper Nos. 2010–016). Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics (2010), http://www.econ.mpg.de Google Scholar
  123. Hajian, S., Domingo-Ferrer, J., Martínez-Ballesté, A.: Rule Protection for Indirect Discrimination Prevention in Data Mining. In: Torra, V., Narakawa, Y., Yin, J., Long, J. (eds.) MDAI 2011. LNCS, vol. 6820, pp. 211–222. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
  124. Hamermesh, D., Biddle, J.: Beauty and the labor market. The American Economic Review 84(5), 1174–1194 (1994)Google Scholar
  125. Hanson, A., Hawley, Z.: Do landlords discriminate in the rental housing market? Evidence from an Internet field experiment in U.S. cities (Working Paper No. 2011-05). Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University (2011), http://excen.gsu.edu
  126. Hardin, J., Hilbe, J.: Generalized linear models and extensions, 2nd edn. Stata Press (2007)Google Scholar
  127. Harford, T.: The logic of life. The Random House Publishing Group (2008)Google Scholar
  128. Harrison, G.W., List, J.A.: Field experiments. American Economic Literature 42(4), 1009–1055 (2004)Google Scholar
  129. Heckman, J.: Detecting discrimination. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 12(2), 101–116 (1998)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  130. Heckman, J., Siegelman, P.: The Urban Institute audit studies: Their methods and findings. In: Fix, M., Struyk, R. (eds.) Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measures of Discrimination in America, pp. 187–248. The Urban Institute Press (1993)Google Scholar
  131. Hellerstein, J.K., Neumark, D., Troske, K.R.: Market forces and sex discrimination. Journal of Human Resources 37(2), 353–380 (2002)Google Scholar
  132. Hersch, P.L.: Customer discrimination against black Major League Baseball pitchers reconsidered. Applied Economics Letters 17(2), 205–208 (2009)Google Scholar
  133. Hildebrandt, M., Gutwirth, S. (eds.): Profiling the European citizen: Cross-disciplinary perspectives. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  134. Hillier, A.E.: Spatial analysis of historical redlining: A methodological explanation. Journal of Housing Research 14(1), 137–168 (2003)Google Scholar
  135. Hogler, R.L., Henle, C., Bemus, C.: Internet recruiting and employment discrimination: A legal perspective. Human Resource Management Review 8(2), 149–164 (1998)Google Scholar
  136. Holmes, P.: New evidence of salary discrimination in Major League Baseball. Labour Economics 18(3), 320–331 (2011)Google Scholar
  137. Holzer, H.J., Ihlanfeldt, K.R.: Customer discrimination and employment outcomes for minority workers. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(3), 835–867 (1998)Google Scholar
  138. Holzer, H.J., Neumark, D.: The economics of affirmative action. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2004)Google Scholar
  139. Holzer, H.J., Neumark, D.: Affirmative action: What do we know? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 25(2), 463–490 (2006)Google Scholar
  140. James, D.R., Tauber, K.E.: Measures of segregation. Sociological Methodology 13, 1–32 (1985)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  141. Jewell, R.T., Brown, R.W., Miles, S.E.: Measuring discrimination in Major League Baseball: Evidence from the baseball hall of fame. Applied Economics 34(2), 167–177 (2002)Google Scholar
  142. Jobard, F., Lévy, R.: Racial profiling: The Parisian police experience. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 53(1), 87–93 (2011)Google Scholar
  143. Kaas, L., Manger, C.: Ethnic discrimination in Germany’s labour market: A field experiment (Discussion Paper No. 4741). Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA (2010), http://ftp.iza.org
  144. Kahn, L.M.: Customer discrimination and affirmative action. Economic Inquiry 29(3), 555–571 (1991a)Google Scholar
  145. Kahn, L.M.: Discrimination in professional sports: A survey of the literature. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 44(3), 395–418 (1991b)Google Scholar
  146. Kahn, L.M.: The sports business as a labor market laboratory. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(3), 75–94 (2000)Google Scholar
  147. Kahn, L.M.: The economics of discrimination: Evidence from basketball (Discussion Paper No. 3987). Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA (2009), http://ftp.iza.org
  148. Kamiran, F., Calders, T.: Classification without discrimination. In: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Computer, Control & Communication (IEEE-IC4 2009). IEEE Press (2009)Google Scholar
  149. Kamiran, F., Calders, T., Pechenizkiy, M.: Discrimination aware decision tree learning. In: Proc. of the 10th IEEE Int. Conf. on Data Mining (ICDM 2010), pp. 869–874. IEEE Computer Society (2010)Google Scholar
  150. Kamishima, T., Akaho, S., Sakuma, J.: Fairness-aware learning through regularization approach. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Workshop on Privacy Aspects of Data Mining (PADM 2011), pp. 643–650. IEEE Computer Society (2011)Google Scholar
  151. Kang, J., Banaji, M.R.: Fair measures: A behavioral realist revision of ”affirmative action”. UCLA Law Review 58(2), 465–520 (2010)Google Scholar
  152. Kaye, D., Aickin, M. (eds.): Statistical methods in discrimination litigation. Marcel Dekker, Inc. (1992)Google Scholar
  153. Knowles, J., Persico, N., Todd, P.: Racial bias in motor vehicle searches: Theory and evidence. Journal of Political Economy 109(1), 203–229 (2001)Google Scholar
  154. Kuhn, P.J., Shen, K.: Employers’ preferences for gender, age, height and beauty: Direct evidence (Working Paper No. 15564). National Bureau of Economic Research (2009), http://www.nber.org
  155. Kunze, A.: Gender wage gap studies: Consistency and decomposition. Empirical Economics 35(1), 63–76 (2008)Google Scholar
  156. LaCour-Little, M.: Discrimination in mortgage lending: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Real Estate Literature 7(1), 15–49 (1999)Google Scholar
  157. Lahey, J.N., Beasley, R.A.: Computerizing audit studies. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 70(3), 508–514 (2009)Google Scholar
  158. Lang, K.: A language theory of discrimination. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 101(2), 363–382 (1986)Google Scholar
  159. Lang, K., Lehmann, J.-Y.K.: Racial discrimination in the labor market: Theory and empirics (2011) (unpublished manuscript, Boston University) Google Scholar
  160. Lee, J.: American Idol: Evidence on same-race preferences. The Berkeley Electronic Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 9(1), Article 28 (2009)Google Scholar
  161. Leonard, J.S., Levine, D.I., Giuliano, L.: Customer discrimination. The Review of Economics and Statistics 92(3), 670–678 (2010)Google Scholar
  162. Leopold, N., Meints, M.: Profiling in employment situations (fraud). In: Hildebrandt, M., Gutwirth, S. (eds.) Profiling the European Citizen: Crossdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 236–257. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  163. Lerner, N.: Group rights and discrimination in international law, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (2003)Google Scholar
  164. Lerner, R., Nagai, A.K.: Reverse discrimination by the numbers. Journal Academic Questions 13(3), 71–84 (2000)Google Scholar
  165. Levine, R., Levkov, A., Rubinstein, Y.: Racial discrimination and competition (Working Paper No. 14273). National Bureau of Economic Research (2008), http://www.nber.org
  166. Levitt, S.D.: Testing theories of discrimination: Evidence from Weakest Link. Journal of Law & Economics 47(2), 431–452 (2004)Google Scholar
  167. Levitt, S.D., List, J.A.: What do laboratory experiments measuring social preferences reveal about the real world? Journal of Economic Perspectives 21(2), 153–174 (2007)Google Scholar
  168. List, J.: The nature and extent of discrimination in the marketplace: Evidence from the field. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119(1), 49–89 (2004)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  169. List, J.A.: Friend or foe? A natural experiment of the prisoner’s dilemma. Review of Economics and Statistics 88(3), 463–471 (2006)Google Scholar
  170. Longhofer, S.D., Peters, S.R.: Why is mortgage discrimination illegal? A fresh look at the mortgage discrimination debate. Regulation, Cato Institute 22(4), 28–36 (1999)Google Scholar
  171. Luong, B.T.: Generalized discrimination discovery on semi-structured datasupported by ontology. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, IMT Institute for Advanced Studies, Lucca, Italy (2011)Google Scholar
  172. Luong, B.T., Ruggieri, S., Turini, F.: k-NN as an implementation of situation testing for discrimination discovery and prevention. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD 2011), pp. 502–510. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  173. Makkonen, T.: Measuring discrimination: Data collection and the EU equality law. European Network of Legal Experts in Anti-Discrimination (2006), http://www.migpolgroup.com
  174. Makkonen, T.: European handbook on equality data. European Network of Legal Experts in Anti-Discrimination (2007), http://ec.europa.eu
  175. McCullagh, P., Nelder, J.A.: Generalized linear models, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall (1989)Google Scholar
  176. McGinnity, F., Nelson, J., Lunn, P., Quinn, E.: Discrimination in recruitment - evidence from a field experiment (Report). The Equality Authority and The Economic and Social Research Institute (2009), http://www.equality.ie
  177. Mcguire, T.G., Ayanian, J.Z., Ford, D.E., Henke, R.E.M., Rost, K.M., Zaslavsky, A.M.: Testing for statistical discrimination by race/ethnicity in panel data for depression treatment in primary care. Health Research and Educational Trust 43(2), 531–551 (2008)Google Scholar
  178. Moreno, M., Ñopo, H., Saavedra, J., Torero, M.: Gender and racial discrimination in hiring: A pseudo audit study for three selected occupations in metropolitan Lima (Working Paper No. 321). Econometric Society (2004), http://econpapers.repec.org
  179. Munnell, A.H., Tootell, G.M.B., Browne, L.E., McEneaney, J.: Mortgage lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA data. American Economic Review 86(1), 25–53 (1996)Google Scholar
  180. Muravyev, A., Talavera, O., Schfer, D.: Entrepreneurs’ gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data. Journal of Comparative Economics 37(2), 270–286 (2009)Google Scholar
  181. Myers, C.K.: Ladies first? A field study of discrimination in Coffee Shops (Working Paper No. 711). Middlebury College, Department of Economics (2007), http://community.middlebury.edu
  182. Neal, D.A., Johnson, W.R.: The role of premarket factors in black-white wage differences. Journal of Political Economy 104(5), 869–895 (1996)Google Scholar
  183. Neumark, D.: Detecting discrimination in audit and correspondence studies (Working Paper No. 16448). National Bureau of Economic Research (2010), http://www.nber.org
  184. Neumayer, E., de Soysa, I.: Globalisation, women’s economic rights and forced labour. The World Economy 30(10), 1510–1535 (2007)Google Scholar
  185. Newman, D.M.: Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life, 7th edn. Pine Forge Press (2008)Google Scholar
  186. Nunley, J.M., Owens, M.F., Howard, R.S.: The effects of competition and information on racial discrimination: Evidence from a field experiment (Working Paper No. 201007). Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and Finance (2010), http://frank.mtsu.edu
  187. Ong, P.M., Stoll, M.A.: Redlining or risk? A spatial analysis of auto insurance rates in Los Angeles. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 26(4), 811–830 (2007)Google Scholar
  188. Oostendorp, R.: Globalization and the gender wage gap. World Bank Economic Review 23(1), 141–161 (2009)Google Scholar
  189. Paetzold, R.L., Willborn, S.L., Baldus, D.C.: The statistics of discrimination: Using statistical evidence in discrimination cases. Shepard’s/McGraw-Hill (1994)Google Scholar
  190. Pager, D.: The use of field experiments for studies of employment discrimination: Contributions, critiques, and directions for the future. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 609(1), 104–133 (2007)Google Scholar
  191. Pager, D., Quillian, L.: Walking the talk? What employers say versus what they do. American Sociological Review 70(3), 355–380 (2005)Google Scholar
  192. Pager, D., Western, B., Bonikowski, B.: Discrimination in a low-wage labor market: A field experiment (Discussion Paper No. 4469). Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA (2009), http://ftp.iza.org
  193. Palmer, M., King, R.: Has salary discrimination really disappeared from Major League Baseball? Eastern Economic Journal 32(2), 285–297 (2006)Google Scholar
  194. Parrett, M.: Customer discrimination in restaurants: Dining frequency matters. Journal of Labor Research 32(2), 87–112 (2011)Google Scholar
  195. Pedreschi, D., Ruggieri, S., Turini, F.: Discrimination-aware data mining. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD 2008), pp. 560–568. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  196. Pedreschi, D., Ruggieri, S., Turini, F.: Measuring discrimination in socially-sensitive decision records. In: Proc. of the SIAM Int. Conf. on Data Mining (SDM 2009), pp. 581–592. SIAM (2009)Google Scholar
  197. Persico, N., Todd, P.: Passenger profiling, imperfect screening, and airport security. American Economic Review 95(2), 127–131 (2005)Google Scholar
  198. Phelps, E.S.: The statistical theory of racism and sexism. American Economic Review 62(4), 659–661 (1972)Google Scholar
  199. Pickerill, J.M., Mosher, C., Pratt, T.: Search and seizure, racial profiling, and traffic stops: A disparate impact framework. Law & Policy 31(1), 1–30 (2009)Google Scholar
  200. Pinkston, J.C.: A test of screening discrimination with employer learning. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59(2), 267–284 (2006)Google Scholar
  201. Pope, D.G., Sydnor, J.R.: Implicit statistical discrimination in predictive models (Working Paper No. 2007-09-11). Risk Management and Decision Processes Center. The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (2007), http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu
  202. Pope, D.G., Sydnor, J.R.: Whats in a picture? Evidence of discrimination from Prosper.com. Journal of Human Resources 46(1), 53–92 (2011)Google Scholar
  203. Primm, E., Piquero, N.L., Piquero, A.R., Regoli, R.M.: Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market. Sociological Inquiry 81(1), 110–132 (2011)Google Scholar
  204. Quillian, L.: New approaches to understanding racial prejudice and discrimination. Annual Review of Sociology 32(1), 299–328 (2006)Google Scholar
  205. Quintanar, S.M.: Man vs. machine: An investigation of speeding ticket disparities based on gender and race (Departmental Working Paper No. 2009-16). Department of Economics, Louisiana State University (2009), http://bus.lsu.edu Google Scholar
  206. Reardon, S.F., Firebaugh, G.: Measures of multigroup segregation. Sociological Methodology 32(1), 33–67 (2002)Google Scholar
  207. Reid, C., Laderman, E.: The untold costs of subprime lending: Examining the links among higher-priced lending, foreclosures and race in california (Working Paper). Paper presented at the Institute for Assets and Social Policy, April 15. Brandeis University (2009), http://iasp.brandeis.edu
  208. Riach, P.A., Rich, J.: Field experiments of discrimination in the market place. The Economic Journal 112(483), 480–518 (2002)Google Scholar
  209. Riach, P.A., Rich, J.: Deceptive field experiments of discrimination: Are they ethical? Kyklos 57(3), 457–470 (2004)Google Scholar
  210. Riach, P.A., Rich, J.: An experimental investigation of sexual discrimination in hiring in the english labor market. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 6(2), Art. 1 (2006)Google Scholar
  211. Ridgeway, G.: Assessing the effect of race bias in post-traffic stop outcomes using propensity scores. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22(1), 1–29 (2006)Google Scholar
  212. Ridgeway, G., MacDonald, J.M.: Doubly robust internal benchmarking and false discovery rates for detecting racial bias in police stops. Journal of the American Statistical Association 104(486), 661–668 (2009)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  213. Rödin, M., Özcan, G.: Is it how you look or speak that matters? An experimental study exploring the mechanisms of ethnic discrimination (Research Papers in Economics No. 2011:12). Stockholm University, Department of Economics (2011), http://www2.ne.su.se Google Scholar
  214. Rooth, D.-O.: Obesity, attractiveness, and differential treatment in hiring: A field experiment. Journal of Human Resources 44(3), 710–735 (2009)Google Scholar
  215. Rorive, I.: Proving Discrimination Cases - the Role of Situation Testing. Centre For Equal Rights & Migration Policy Group (2009), http://www.migpolgroup.com
  216. Roscigno, V., Karafin, D.L., Tester, G.: The complexities and processes of racial housing discrimination. Social Problems 56(1), 49–69 (2009)Google Scholar
  217. Ross, S.L., Tootell, G.M.B.: Redlining, the community reinvestment act, and private mortgage insurance. Journal of Urban Economics 55(2), 278–297 (2004)Google Scholar
  218. Ross, S.L., Yinger, J.: The color of credit: Mortgage discrimination, research methodology, and fair-lending enforcement. The MIT Press (2002)Google Scholar
  219. Rowe, B.: Gender bias in the enforcement of traffic laws: Evidence based ona new empirical test (Working Paper No. 3). The Berkeley Electronic Press (2009), http://www-personal.umich.edu
  220. Ruggieri, S., Pedreschi, D., Turini, F.: Data mining for discrimination discovery. ACM Trans. on Knowledge Discovery from Data 4(2), 1–40 (2010a)Google Scholar
  221. Ruggieri, S., Pedreschi, D., Turini, F.: DCUBE: Discrimination discovery in databases. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data (SIGMOD 2010), pp. 1127–1130. ACM (2010b)Google Scholar
  222. Ruggieri, S., Pedreschi, D., Turini, F.: Integrating induction and deduction for finding evidence of discrimination. Artificial Intelligence and Law 18(1), 1–43 (2010c)Google Scholar
  223. Rugh, J.S., Massey, D.S.: Racial segregation and the American foreclosure crisis. American Sociological Review 75(5), 629–651 (2010)Google Scholar
  224. Sanandaji, T.: Reversion to the racial mean and mortgate discrimination (Working Paper No. 811). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (2009), http://www.ifn.se
  225. Sanga, S.: Reconsidering racial bias in motor vehicle searches: Theory and evidence. Journal of Political Economy 117(6), 1155–1159 (2009)Google Scholar
  226. Sano, S.: Testing the taste-based discrimination hypothesis: Evidence from data on japanese listed firms. Japan Labor Review 6(1), 36–50 (2009)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  227. Schiek, D., Waddington, L., Bell, M. (eds.): Cases, materials and text on national, supranational and international non-discrimination law. Hart Publishing (2007)Google Scholar
  228. Schreurs, W., Hildebrandt, M., Kindt, E., Vanfleteren, M.: The role of data protection law and non-discrimination law in group profiling in the private sector. In: Hildebrandt, M., Gutwirth, S. (eds.) Profiling the European Citizen: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives, pp. 258–287. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  229. Sheskin, D.J. (ed.): Handbook of parametric and non-parametric statistical procedure, 3rd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC (2004)Google Scholar
  230. Silverman, R.: Redlining in a majority black city?: Mortgage lending and the racial composition of Detroit neighborhoods. The Western Journal of Black Studies 29(1), 531–541 (2005)Google Scholar
  231. Slonim, R., Guillen, P.: Gender selection discrimination: Evidence from a trust game. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 76(2), 385–405 (2010)Google Scholar
  232. Sowell, T. (ed.): Affirmative action around the world: An empirical analysis. Yale University Press (2005)Google Scholar
  233. Squires, G.D., Hyra, D.S., Renner, R.N.: Segregation and the subprime lending crisis (Briefing Paper No. 244). Economic Policy Institute (2009), http://www.epi.org
  234. Steele, C.M., Aronson, J.: Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of african americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(5), 797–811 (1995)Google Scholar
  235. Sulis, G.: Gender wage differentials in Italy: A structural estimation approach (Working Paper CRENoS No. 2007-15). Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia (2007), http://crenos.unica.it Google Scholar
  236. Taylor, A.: Discrimination in rental housing markets: Evidence from Craigslist audits (2010), http://aysps.gsu.edu (unpublished manuscript)
  237. Tillyer, R., Engel, R.S., Cherkauskas, J.C.: Best practices in vehicle stop data collection and analysis. Journal of Police Strategies and Management 33(1), 69–92 (2010)Google Scholar
  238. Tillyer, R., Engel, R.S., Wooldredge, J.: The intersection of racial profiling research and the law. Journal of Criminal Justice 36(2), 138–153 (2008)Google Scholar
  239. Tobler, C.: Limits and potential of the concept of indirect discrimination. European Network of Legal Experts in Anti-Discrimination (2008), http://www.migpolgroup.com
  240. Tsao, T.-Y., Pearlman, A.: Decomposition of the black-white wage differential in the physician market (Economics Working Paper No. wp 588). The Levy Economics Institute (2010), http://www.levyinstitute.org
  241. Turner, M.A., Ross, S.L.: How racial discrimination affects the search for housing. In: de Souza Briggs, X. (ed.) The Geography of Opportunity, pp. 81–100. Brookings Institution Press (2005)Google Scholar
  242. Turner, M.A., Ross, S.L., Galster, G.C., Yinger, J.: Discrimination in metropolitan housing markets: National results from phase i of hds 2000. Urban Institute, Dep. Hous. Urban Dev. (2002), http://www.urban.org
  243. Turner, M.A., Skidmore, F. (eds.): Mortgage lending discrimination: A review of existing evidence. The Urban Institute (1999), http://www.urban.org
  244. U.K. Legislation: (a) Sex Discrimination Act, 1975, (b) Race Relation Act, 1976 (2011), http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk
  245. United Nations Legislation: (a) Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, (b) International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights, 1966, (c) International Covenant on Ecomomic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966, (d) Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966, (e) Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979 (2011), http://www.ohchr.org
  246. U.S. Federal Legislation: (a) Equal Credit Opportunity Act, 1974; (b) Fair Housing Act, 1968; (c) Employment Act, 1967; (d) Equal Pay Act, 1963; (e) Pregnancy Discrimination Act, 1978; (f) Civil Right Act, 1964, 1991 (2011), http://www.eeoc.gov
  247. Usui, E.: Wages, non-wage characteristics, and predominantly male jobs. Labour Economics 16(1), 52–63 (2009)Google Scholar
  248. Vicki, B., Ellen, I., Madar, J.: The high cost of segregation: Exploring racial disparities in high-cost lending. Fordham Urban Law Journal 36(3), 361–393 (2009)Google Scholar
  249. Wang, S.-Y.: Statistical discrimination, productivity and the height of immigrants (Working Paper No. 3344). eSocialSciences (2010), http://www.esocialsciences.org
  250. Weichselbaumer, D., Winter-Ebmer, R.: A meta-analysis of the international gender wage gap. Journal of Economic Surveys 19(3), 479–511 (2005)Google Scholar
  251. Weichselbaumer, D., Winter-Ebmer, R.: The effects of competition and equal treatment laws on gender wage differentials. Economic Policy 22, 235–287 (2007)Google Scholar
  252. Weller, C.E.: Credit access, the costs of credit and credit market discrimination (Working Paper No. 171). Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst (2008), http://www.peri.umass.edu
  253. Whitley, B.E., Kite, M.E.: The psychology of prejudice and discrimination, 2nd edn. Wadsworth Publishing (2009)Google Scholar
  254. Wilson, D.P., Ying, Y.-H.: Nationality preferences for labour in the international football industry. Applied Economics 35(14), 1551–1559 (2003)Google Scholar
  255. Wingate, P.H., Thornton, G.C.: Statistics and employment discrimination law: An interdisciplinary review. In: Martocchio, J., Liao, H., Joshi, A. (eds.) Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, vol. 19, pp. 295–337. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. (2000)Google Scholar
  256. Wyly, E.K., Moos, M., Foxcroft, H., Kabahizi, E.: Subprime mortgage segmentation in the American urban system. Journal of Economic and Social Geography 99(1), 3–23 (2008)Google Scholar
  257. Yamagishi, T., Jin, N., Kiyonari, T.: Bounded generalized reciprocity: Ingroup boasting and ingroup favoritism. In: Lawler, E.J., Macy, M.W. (eds.) Advances in Group Processes, vol. 16, pp. 161–197. Jai Press Inc. (1999)Google Scholar
  258. Yang, C.-H., Lin, H.-Y.: Is there salary discrimination by nationality in the NBA? Foreign talent or foreign market. Journal of Sports Economics (2010) (published online: December 27, 2010)Google Scholar
  259. Yap, B.W., Ong, S.H., Husain, N.H.M.: Using data mining to improve assessment of credit worthiness via credit scoring models. Expert Systems with Applications 38(10), 13274–13283 (2011)Google Scholar
  260. Yezer, A.M.: A review of statistical problems in the measurement of mortgage market discrimination and credit risk (Report). Research Institute for Housing America (2010), http://www.housingamerica.org
  261. Zhang, L., Dong, X.-Y.: Male-female wage discrimination in Chinese industry - investigation using firm-level data. Economics of Transition 16(1), 85–112 (2008)Google Scholar
  262. Zliobaite, I., Kamiran, F., Calders, T.: Handling conditional discrimination. In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Data Mining (ICDM 2011), pp. 992–1001. IEEE Computer Society (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversità di PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations