Evolution of Cellular Pattern Formation during Early Nematode Embryogenesis

Chapter

Abstract

Genetic divergence appears to be high among nematodes, while morphological variation is low. To better understand how this fits together and to trace the evolution of development in this phylum we started a comprehensive comparative survey of embryogenesis comprising all branches of the phylogenetic tree. We find considerable differences, in particular between basal and more derived species. This review focuses on cellular pattern formation and cell fate assignment during early development. Our data indicate that evolution of nematodes went from indeterminate early cleavage without initial polarity to invariant cell lineages with establishment of polarity before first division. Different ways to establish this polarity and the variety of taxon-specific spatial arrangements of cells require modifications with respect to cell specification processes and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We conclude that the “standard pattern” as found in the model system C. elegans constitutes only one of the many ways to construct a nematode and discuss the adaptive value of the observed developmental variations.

Keywords

Inductive Interaction Spindle Orientation Caenorhabditis Species Ascaris Development Cleavage Spindle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Jens Schulze for discussion, Vera Lahl and Ndifon Nsah for images, and Randy Cassada for helpful comments on the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cologne BiocenterUniversity of CologneKölnGermany

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