Src Protein Kinases in Mouse and Rat Oocytes and Embryos
Meiosis of the mammalian oocytes is a specialized cell division, initiated during the female’s embryonic life. It arrests at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and resumes with GV breakdown, followed by segregation of the chromosomes and extrusion of the first polar body in an asymmetric cell division that concludes the first meiotic division, before arresting at metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII). Once fertilized, the oocyte exits from MII, extrudes the second polar body, and the developing zygote will continue dividing to create a blastocyst. Although the two processes of meiosis and mitosis have different developmental functions, it is believed that they share similar mechanisms. Src family kinases (SFKs) are nine non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases that regulate many key cellular functions including meiotic and mitotic cell cycles. In this review we discuss the involvement of SFKs in meiotic and mitotic cell cycle key processes as nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle stabilization, karyokinetic exit from metaphase, regulation of cortical actin, and cytokinetic cleavage furrow ingression.
KeywordsMeiotic Division Germinal Vesicle Mouse Oocyte Spindle Pole Cleavage Furrow
We thank Dr. Bernard Maro for his valuable help; Dr. Sophie Louvet-Vallée for microinjection of the mouse embryos and Dr. Marie-Hélène Verlhac for the Histone-H2B-RFP cDNA. We also thank Ruth Kaplan-Kraicer for her help in preparing the manuscript. Authors were supported by a grant from the Israel Science Foundation to R. Shalgi (Grant number 261/09) and by the Eshkol scholarship from the Israel Ministry of Science, Culture and Sport to M. Levi (Grant number 3-5420) while writing this article.
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