Groundwater Occurrence in Regions and Basins

  • Seifu Kebede
Chapter
Part of the Springer Hydrogeology book series (SPRINGERHYDRO)

Abstract

The broad volcanic plateau (Fig. 1.2) accounts for about 25 % of Ethiopian landmass. The Ethiopian volcanic plateau is a thick monotonous, rapidly erupted pile of locally deformed, flat lying basalts consisting of a number of volcanic centers with different magmatic character and with a large range of ages.

References

  1. Abebe T, Mazzarini F, Innocenti F, Manetti P (1998) The Yerer-Tullu Wellel volcanotectonic lineament:a transtensional structure in central Ethiopia and the associated magmatic activity. J Africa Earth Sci 26:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abreham A (1989) Tectonic history of the Pan-African low-grade belt of western Ethiopia. Note 305, Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  3. Acworth RI (1987) The development of crystalline basement aquifers in a tropical environment. Q J Eng Geol 20:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alemayehu T, Legesse D, Ayenew T et al. (2005) Hydrogeology, water quality and degree of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Addis Ababa, UNEP-UNESCO report, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  5. Alamneh S (1989) Hydrogeology of Yabello sheet (NB37-14). Ethiopian Geological Survey report number 307 Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  6. AAWSA (2002) Model verification for Akaki groundwater resource and proposed development alternatives, groundwater phase II. Report by BCEOM/Seureca Space/Tropics, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayalew D, Marty B, Yirgu G, Pik R (1999) Geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd and Pb) characteristics of volcanic rocks from southwestern Ethiopia. J Afr Earth Sci 29:381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayalew E (2008) Growing lake with growing problems: Integrated hydrogeological investigation on Lake Beseka, Ethiopia. Dissertation, University of BonnGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayenew T (2008) The distribution and hydrogeological controls of fluoride in the groundwater of central Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands. Environ Geol 54:1313–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Battistelli A, Yiheyi A, Calor C et al (2002) Reservoir engineering assessment of Dubti geothermal field, Northern Tendaho Rift, Ethiopia. Geothermics 31:381–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BCEOM (1999) Abay River Basin integrated master plan, main report, Ministry of Water Resources, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  12. Belete Y, Alemirew D, Mekonen A et al. (2004) Explanatory notes to the hydrogeological and hydrochemical maps of the Asosa-Kurmuk Area (NC36-7 West of Assosa and NC36-8 Assosa sheets), Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  13. Beyth M (1972) The geology of central Western tigre. University of Bonn, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosellini A (1989) The East African continental margins. J Geol 14:76–78Google Scholar
  15. Bretzler A, Osenbrück K, Stadler S, Klausd J, Kebede S, Gloaguen R (2011) Groundwater origin and dynamics in the Main Ethiopian Rift investigated using a multi-isotope approach. J Hydrol. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.022 Google Scholar
  16. BSEE (1973) The caves of Ethiopia-The 1972 British Speleologicla Expediation to Ethiopia. Trans Cave Res Group Great Br 15:107–168Google Scholar
  17. Burke K, Gunnel Y (2008) A continental scale synthesis of Geomorphology, Tectonics and Environmental change of the past 180 My. The Geol Soc of Amer Pub, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  18. Burke K (1996) The African plate. South Afr J Geol 99:339–409Google Scholar
  19. Butzer KW (1971) Recent History of an Ethiopian Delta. Department of Geography Research Paper no. 136. The University of Chicago, Chicago, IIIGoogle Scholar
  20. Butzer KW (1981) Rise and fall of Axum, Ethiopia: A Geo-Archaeological interpretation. Am Antiq 46:471–495Google Scholar
  21. Castany G (1982) Basin sédimentaire du Sahara septentrional (Algérie-Tunisie). Aquifères du Continental intercalaire et du Complexe Terminal. Bull 3:127–147Google Scholar
  22. Chernet T (1993) Hydrogeology of Ethiopia and water resources development. Ethiopian institute of geological surveys, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  23. Chernet T, William KH, James L et al (1998) New age constraints on the timing of volcanism and tectonism in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift–southern Afar transition zone (Ethiopia). J Volcanol Geothermal Res 80:267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chorowicz J, Collet B, Bonavia FF et al (1998) The Tana basin, Ethiopia: intra-plateau uplift, rifting and subsidence. Tectonophy 295:351–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coltorti M, Dramis F, Ollier CD (2007) Planation surfaces in Northern Ethiopia. Geomorpholoy 89:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Damte A, Boccaletti M, Mazzuoli R, Tortorici L (1992) Geological map of the Nazret–Dera Region (main Ethiopian rift). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  27. Darling WG, Gizaw B, Arusei KM (1996) Lake-groundwater relationships and fluid rock interaction in the East African Rift Valley: isotopic evidence. J Afr Earth Sci 22:423–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidson A (1983) The Omo River Project. Reconnaissance geology and geochemistry of parts of Illubabor, Kefa, Gemu Gofa and Sidamo, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Institute of Geological Survey, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  29. Demlie M, Wohnlich S, Gizaw B, Stichler W (2007) Groundwater recharge in the Akaki catchment, central Ethiopia: evidence from environmental isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H) and chloride mass balance. Hydrol Process 21:807–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Drury A, Peart RJ, Andrews Deller ME (2001) Hydrogeological potential of major fractures in Eritrea. J Afr Earth Sci 32:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Drury SA, Kelley SP, Berhe SM et al (1994) Structures related to Red Sea evolution in northern Ethiopia. Tectonics 136:1371–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ebinger CJ, Casey M (2001) Continental breakup in magmatic provinces: an Ethiopian example. Geology 20:527–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. EGS (1996) Geological map of Ethiopia at 1:2000000 scale. Ethiopian Geological Survey, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  34. Enkurie DL (2010) Adigrat Sandstone in Northern and Central Ethiopia: Stratigraphy, Facies, Depositional Environments and Palynology. Dissertation, Technical University of BelinGoogle Scholar
  35. Fairbridge RW, Finkl CW (1980) Cratonic regime, unconformities and peneplains. J Geol 88:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foster SSD (1984) African groundwater development—the challenges for hydrological science. IAHS Publ 144:3–12Google Scholar
  37. Ford D, Williams P (2007) Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Willy, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  38. Gasparon M, Innocenti F, Manetti P et al (1993) Genesis of Pliocene to Recent mafic-felsic volcanism in the Debre Zeyt area, central Ethiopia: volcanolocical and geochemical constraints. J Afr Earth Sci 17:145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gasse F (1977) Evolution of Lake Abhe (Ethiopia and TFAI), from 70,000 BP. Nature 265:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gebresilassie A (2010) Assessment of hydraulic properties of Ethiopian Termaber formation. MSc thesis, Addis Ababa UniversityGoogle Scholar
  41. Gerra S, Abreham A (1999) Geology of the Sololo area, Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Memoir 12Google Scholar
  42. Guiraud R (1997) Review of the hydrogeology of Africa. Afri Geosci Rev 4:297–324Google Scholar
  43. Gizaw B (1996) The origin of high bicarbonate and fluoride concentrations in waters of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley, East African Rift system. J Afr Earth Sci 2:391–402Google Scholar
  44. Gizaw B (2002) Hydrochemical and Environmental Investigation of the Addis Ababa Region, Ethiopia. Dissertation, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of MunichGoogle Scholar
  45. Hadwen P, Aytenfisu M, Mengesha G (1973) Groundwater in the Ogaden. Geological survey of Ethiopia, report number 880-551-14Google Scholar
  46. Halcrow (2008) Rift Valley Lakes Basin integrated resources development master plan study project. Main Report. Halcrow Group Limited and Generation Integrated Rural Development (GIRD) Consultants, Ministry of Water and Energy, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  47. Hautot H, Whaler W, Gebru et al. (2006) The structure of a Mesozoic Basin Beneath the Lake Tana Area, Ethiopia, Revealed by Magnetotelluric Imaging. J Afr E Sci doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.11.027
  48. Herczeg AL, Edmunds WM (2000) Inorganic ions as tracers, Chapter 2. In: Cook PG, Herczeg AL (eds) Environmental tracers in subsurface hydrology. Kluwer, BostonGoogle Scholar
  49. Kassa N (2007) Groundwater resources and management issues in Central Ethiopian Rift. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa UniversityGoogle Scholar
  50. Kazmin V, Shiferaw A, Balcha T (1978) The Ethiopian basement: stratigraphy and possible manner of evolution. Geol Rundsch 67:531–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kebede S, Admasu G, Travi Y (2011) Estimating ungauged catchment flows from Lake Tana floodplains (Ethiopia): isotope hydrological approach. Isotop Environ Health Stud 47:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kebede S, Travi Y, Rozanski K (2009) The δ18O and δ2H enrichment of Ethiopian Lakes. J Hydrol 365:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kebede S, Travi Y, Asrat A et al (2007) Groundwater origin and flow along selected mountain-valley transects in Ethiopian rift volcanic aquifers. Hydrogeol J Dio. doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0210-0 Google Scholar
  54. Kebede S, Travi Y, Alemayehu T, Marc V (2006) Impact of rainfall variation and water resources development on Lake Tana level and its blue Nile flow. J Hydrol 316:233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kebede S, Travi Y, Alemayehu T, Ayenew T (2005) Groundwater recharge, circulation and geochemical evolution in the source region of the Blue Nile River, Ethiopia. Appl Geochem 20:1658–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kebede S (2004) Approches isotopique et geochimique pour l’etude des eaux souterraines et des lacs : exemples du haut bassin du Nil Bleu et du rift Ethiopien [Environmental isotopes and geochemistry in groundwater and lake hydrology: cases from the Blue Nile basin, main Ethiopian rift and Afar, Ethiopia], Dissertation, University of AvignonGoogle Scholar
  57. Kebede S, Lamb HF, Leng M et al (2002) Lake Groundwater relation, oxygen isotope balance and oxygen isotope modeling of the Bishoftu crater lakes. Adv Global Change Res 12:261–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kieffer B, Arndt N, Lapierre H et al (2004) Flood and shield basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell. J Petrol 45:793–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kilham P, Hecky RE (1973) Fluoride: geochemical and ecological significance in east African waters and sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 18:932–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lamb HF, Bates R, Combes P (2007) Late pleistocene desiccation of Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile. Quatern Sci Rev 26:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Le Turdu C, Tiercelin JJ, Gibert E et al (1999) The Ziway–Shala lake basin system, main Ethiopian Rift: influence of volcanism, tectonics, and climatic forcing on basin formation and sedimentation. Palaeogeogr Palaeclim Palaeoecol 150:135–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Machado MJ, Perez-Gonzalez A, Benito G (1998) Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 4,000 year in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Quatern Res 49:312–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McDougall I, Brown F, Gathogo P et al. (2008) Chronological control of Pliocene and Pleistocene strata in the Omo Turkana basin, Ethiopia, Ethiopia and Kenya. Hominide drilling workshop abstract, Addis Ababa University, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  64. Mege D, Rango T (2010) Permanent groundwater storage in basaltic dyke fractures and termite mound viability. J Afr Earth Sci 57:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Merla GE, Minucci E (1938) Missione geologica del Tigrai-I. La serie dei Terreni, Reale Accademia d’Italia, Centro Studi A.O.I, RomeGoogle Scholar
  66. Moeyersons J, Van Den Eeckhaut M, Nyssen J et al (2008) Mass movement mapping for geomorphological understanding and sustainable development: Tigray. Ethiopia Catena 75:45–54Google Scholar
  67. Mohr P (1973) Crustal deformation rate and the evolution of the Ethiopian rift. In: Tarling DH, Runcorn SK (eds) Implications of continental drift to the earth sciences. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Mohr P (1983) Ethiopian flood basalt province. Nature 303:577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mohr P, Zanettin B (1988) The Ethiopian flood basalt province. In: Macdougall JD (ed) Continental flood basalts. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  70. Morton WH, Rex DC, Mitchell JG, Mohr PA (1979) Riftward younging of surface volcanic units in the Addis Ababa Region, Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nature 280:284–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. MWR (2007) Evaluation of water resources of the Ada’a and Becho plains groundwater basin for irrigation development project, Volume III:Groundwater Evaluation Report, Water Works Design and Supervision Enterprise, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  72. Nyssen J, Poesen J, Moeyersons J et al (2003) Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands- a state of the art. Earth Sci Rev. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(03)00078-3 Google Scholar
  73. Nutter LJ, Otton EG (1969) Groundwater occurrence in the Maryland Piedimont. Maryland geological survey report of investigation 10, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  74. Pik R, Marty B, Carignan J, Lave J (2003) Stability of the upper nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduced from (U-Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the afar plume dome. Earth Planet Sci Lett 215:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rango T, Bianchini G, Beccaluva L et al (2009) Hydrogeochemical study in the main Ethiopian Rift: new insights to the source and enrichment mechanism of fluoride. Environ Geol 58:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reimann C, Bjorvatn K, Frengstad B et al (2003) Drinking water quality in the Ethiopian section of the East African Rift Valley, part I: data and health aspects. Sci Total Environ 31:65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rochette P, Tamrat E, Feraud G et al (1998) Magnetostratigraphy and timing of the Oligocene Ethiopian Traps. Earth Planet Sci Lett 164:497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Şengör AMC (2001) Elevation as indicator of mantle plume activity, Geological Society of America Special Paper. Ernst R, Buchan K (eds) 352:183–225Google Scholar
  79. Sima J (1987) Hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the Bako and Ist’Ifanos Hayk’ areas (NB 37-9 and NB37-13), Provision Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia, Ministry of Mines and Engergy, Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys. Note Number 271 Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  80. Sima J (2009) Water resources management and environmental protection studies of the jemma river basin for improved food security. AQUATEST, Geologicka Prague, Czech RepublicGoogle Scholar
  81. SMEC (2007) Hydrological study of the Tana-Beles Sub Basins, Technical report (Ministry of Water Resources, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  82. Taddesse T, Hoshino M, Sawada Y (1999) Geochemistry of low-grade metavolcanic rocks from the Pan-African of the Axum area, northern Ethiopia. Precambrian Res 99:101–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Taylor RG, Howard KWF (1998) Post-Palaeozoic evolution of weathered land surfaces in Uganda by tectonically controlled deep weathering and stripping. J Geomorphol 25:173–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taylor RG, Howard KWF (2000) A tecono-geomorphic model of the hydrogeology of deeply weathered crystalline rock: evidence from Uganda. Hydrogeol J 8:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Telford RJ, Lamb HF (1999) Groundwater-mediated response to Holocene climatic change recorded by the diatom stratigraphy of an Ethiopian crater lake. Quatern Res 52:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Telford RJ (1998) The palaeoenvironmental record of Holocene environmental change in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Dissertation, University of WalesGoogle Scholar
  87. Thiry M, Simon-Coinçon R, Schmitt J-M (1999) Kaolinic palaeoweatherings: climatic significance and signature in the sedimentary column, Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series IIA—Earth and Planetary Science 329: 853–863Google Scholar
  88. Thomas MF (1989) The role of etch processes in landform development: I. Etching concepts and their applications. J Geomorphol 33:129–142Google Scholar
  89. UNESCO (1984) Groundwater in hard rocks. International hydrological program publication ISBN 92-3-101980-5Google Scholar
  90. UNESCO (2006) Groundwater resources of the world: transboundary aquifer systems, 1:50,000,000 scale map. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  91. USBR (1964) Land and water resources of the Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. United States Bureau of Reclamation, Main report, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  92. WAPCOS (1990) Preliminary water resources development master plan for Ethiopia, Ministry of Water Resoruces, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  93. Wolfenden E, Ebinger C, Yirgu G, Deino A, Ayalew D (2004) Evolution of the northern Main Ethiopian rift: birth of a triple junction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 224:213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. WoldeGabriel G, Walter RC, Aronson JL (1992) Geochronology and distribution of silicic volcanic rocks of Plio-Pleistocene age from the central sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Quat Int 13(14):69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. WWDSE (2009) Groundwater resources of the upper Tekeze basin: resource description, assessment and model, in stream report.m report. Water Works Design and Supervision Enterprise, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  96. Yirgu G, Dereje A, Peccerillo A et al (1999) Fluorine and chloride distribution in the volcanic rocks from the Gedemsa volcano, Ethiopian Rift Valley. Acta Vulcanol 2:169–176Google Scholar
  97. Zanettin B, Justin-Visentin E (1974) The volcanic succession in central Ethiopia, the volcanics of the western Afar and Ethiopian Rift margins. Univ Padova Inst Geol Mineral Mem 31:1–19Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seifu Kebede
    • 1
  1. 1. Department of Earth SciencesAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations