Methods for the Detection of Gasotransmitters

Chapter

Abstract

The discovery of gasotransmitters, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), represents great milestones in biology. Both the discovery and related study of these gasotransmitters have benefited from selective and sensitive detection methods. This chapter has briefly reviewed and compared the methods used for the detection and determination of these three gasotransmitters. For NO, the detection methods include small molecule organic chemoprobes, transition metal-based probes, capillary electrophoresis (CE), NO-selective electrodes, and protein-based probes. For H2S, the detection methods include chromatographic methods such as gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), reaction-based spectrophotometric methods such as fluorescent chemoprobes and electrochemical methods. CO detection in biological systems mainly focuses on measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) saturation. Methods such as spectrophotometric methods, GC, and electrochemical methods are used in this field.

Keywords

Detection methods Gasotransmitters Nitric oxide Carbon monoxide Hydrogen sulfide Chemoprobes Chemosensors 

Abbreviations

3MST

3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase

BME

β-mercaptoethanol

BODIPY

4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene

CAT

Cysteine aminotransferase

CBS

Cystathionine β-synthase

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

cGMP

3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CNS

Central nervous system

COHb

Carboxyhaemoglobin

CSE

Cystathionine γ-lyase

Cys

Cysteine

DAC

Diaminocyanine

DAF

4,5-diaminofluorescein

DAMBOs

Diaminobenzene-BODIPY

DAN

2,3-diaminonaphthalene

DAQ

1,2-diaminoanthraquinone

DAR

Diaminorhodamine

DAT

2,3-naphthotriazol

DNS

Dansyl

DPA

Dipicolylamine

DTCS

N-(dithiocarboxy)sarcosine

ECFP

Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein

EDFR

Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EYFP

Enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

FID

Flame ionization detector

FPD

Flame photometric detector

FRET

Förster resonance energy transfer

GC

Gas chromatography

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

GSH

Glutathione

Hb

Hemoglobin or haemoglobin

Hcy

Homocysteine

HEPES

4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid

HHb

Reduced haemoglobin

HO

Heme oxygenase

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

ISE

Ion selective electrode

LIF

Laser-induced fluorescence

MetHb

Methemoglobin

MT

Metallothionein

NIR

Near infrared

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

O2Hb

Oxyhaemoglobin

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

PeT

Photoinduced electron transfer

PFPD

Pulsed flame photometric detector

PHSS

Polarographic hydrogen sulfide sensor

PID

Photoionization detector

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RSS

Reactive sulfur species

SAOB

Sulfide antioxidant buffer

SER

Serine

SulphHb

Sulphemoglobin

TCD

Thermo conductivity detector

TEMPO

2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl radical

UV

Ultraviolet

Formula

CH4

Methane

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

CuS

Copper(II) sulfide

FeCl3

Iron(III) chloride

Fe(CN)3

ferricyanide

H2

Hydrogen

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

H2S

Hydrogen sulfide

H2SO4

Sulfuric acid

H3PO4

Phosphoric acid

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

HS

Hydrosulfide anion

I2

Iodine

I2O5

Iodine pentoxide

K3FeCN6

Potassium ferricyanide

Mg2+

Magnesium cation

N2O3

Dinitrogen trioxide

Na2S2O4

Sodium dithionite

Na2SO3

Sodium sulfite

NaI

Sodium iodide

NaOH

Sodium hydroxide

NO2

Nitrite anion

NO3

Nitrate anion

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

O2

Oxygen

O2

Superoxide anion

ONOO

Peroxynitrite anion

PdCl2

Palladium chloride

S2−

Sulfide anion

ZnCl2

Zinc chloride

Zn(OAc)2

Zinc acetate

ZnS

Zinc sulfide

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCenter for Biotechnology and Drug Design, and Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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