Methods for the Detection of Gasotransmitters



The discovery of gasotransmitters, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), represents great milestones in biology. Both the discovery and related study of these gasotransmitters have benefited from selective and sensitive detection methods. This chapter has briefly reviewed and compared the methods used for the detection and determination of these three gasotransmitters. For NO, the detection methods include small molecule organic chemoprobes, transition metal-based probes, capillary electrophoresis (CE), NO-selective electrodes, and protein-based probes. For H2S, the detection methods include chromatographic methods such as gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), reaction-based spectrophotometric methods such as fluorescent chemoprobes and electrochemical methods. CO detection in biological systems mainly focuses on measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) saturation. Methods such as spectrophotometric methods, GC, and electrochemical methods are used in this field.


Detection methods Gasotransmitters Nitric oxide Carbon monoxide Hydrogen sulfide Chemoprobes Chemosensors 



3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase






Cysteine aminotransferase


Cystathionine β-synthase


Capillary electrophoresis


3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate


Central nervous system




Cystathionine γ-lyase
























Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein


Endothelium-derived relaxing factor


Environmental Protection Agency


Enhanced yellow fluorescent protein


Flame ionization detector


Flame photometric detector


Förster resonance energy transfer


Gas chromatography


Green fluorescent protein




Hemoglobin or haemoglobin




4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid


Reduced haemoglobin


Heme oxygenase


High performance liquid chromatography


Ion selective electrode


Laser-induced fluorescence






Near infrared


Neuronal nitric oxide synthase


Nitric oxide


Nitric oxide synthase




Phosphate buffered saline


Photoinduced electron transfer


Pulsed flame photometric detector


Polarographic hydrogen sulfide sensor


Photoionization detector


Reactive nitrogen species


Reactive oxygen species


Reactive sulfur species


Sulfide antioxidant buffer






Thermo conductivity detector


2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl radical







Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Copper(II) sulfide


Iron(III) chloride






Hydrogen peroxide


Hydrogen sulfide


Sulfuric acid


Phosphoric acid


Hydrochloric acid


Hydrosulfide anion




Iodine pentoxide


Potassium ferricyanide


Magnesium cation


Dinitrogen trioxide


Sodium dithionite


Sodium sulfite


Sodium iodide


Sodium hydroxide


Nitrite anion


Nitrate anion


Nitrogen dioxide




Superoxide anion


Peroxynitrite anion


Palladium chloride


Sulfide anion


Zinc chloride


Zinc acetate


Zinc sulfide


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCenter for Biotechnology and Drug Design, and Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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