From the Initial to the Present Sun

  • Rudolf Kippenhahn
  • Alfred Weigert
  • Achim Weiss
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)


There is evidence on Earth that the Sun has shone for more than 3,000 million years with about the same luminosity. From radioactive decay in different materials of the solar system, one nowadays assumes that it was formed 4.57 Gigayears (Gyrs; 109 years) ago. Since then, the Sun has lived on hydrogen burning, predominantly according to the pp chain, and its interior has been appreciably enriched in 4He. In the following we show how a model of the present Sun can be constructed.


Convective Zone Solar Neutrino Solar Model Hydrogen Burning Solar Interior 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf Kippenhahn
    • 1
  • Alfred Weigert
    • 2
  • Achim Weiss
    • 3
  1. 1.GöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Universität HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Max-Planck-Institut für AstrophysikGarchingGermany

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