Practical Illustrations Sodium Spectroscopy and Imaging: Clinical Applications

  • M. M. Kaila
  • Rakhi Kaila
Part of the Series in BioEngineering book series (SERBIOENG)


A valid distinction between cytotoxic and vasogenic edema is based mainly on the differences in blood–brain barmier permeability. Vasogenic edema fluid develops in association with a variety of pathologic conditions such as brain tumors, brain abscesses hypertension or areas of infarction. In cases of brain tumor edema fluid leaks from the tumor vessels and spreads into the surrounding white matter. Similarly, cryogenic injury of the cerebral cortex causes a transient breakdown of the blood–brain barrier in the zone bordering the necrotic region allowing edema fluid to spread into the white matter. The regions in which the blood–brain barrier is defective and those in which the edema accumulates do not necessarily correspond. MRI has a proved to be a valuable and sensitive method by which to detect vasogenic edema. Multinuclear MR imaging (proton and sodium) permits in vivo assessment of the relative distributions of water and sodium within the brain. One can define the sodium signal associated with edema fluid as well as investigate the relaxation characteristics of extra-cellular sodium, for properties that may be specific to sodium in the extra-cellular compartment. A model of vasogenic edema can thus be developed. Previously models have relied on local injury to the brain by either cold or chemical insult. The resulting region of necrotic brain has a defective blood–brain barrier and vasogenic edema forms adjacent to the injured tissue. One can avoid a mixture of necrotic and edematous brain tissue by the use of a non traumatic mode of vasogenic edema in mongrel dogs.


Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Vasogenic Edema Extracellular Compartment Edema Fluid Sodium Signal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Patrick, A.T., William, H.P., John, K.H., Lanning, W.H., Charles, M.S., Joseph, F.S.: Clinical and experimental vasogenic edema: in vivo sodium MR imaging Radiology 160, 821–825 (1986)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kelth, R.T., Tatyana, S.G., BS, Denise Davis, B.S., Patricia E.R.B.: Comprehensive MR imaging protocol for stroke management: tissue sodium concentration as a measure of tissue viability in nonhuman primate studies and in clinical studies. Radiology 213, 156–166s (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robert, S., Christian, B.: In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain using soft inversion recovery fluid attenuation. Magn. Reson. Med. 54, 1305–1310 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fleysher, R., Fleysher, L., Gonen, O.: The optimal MR acquisition strategy for exponential decay constants estimation. Magn. Reson. Imag. 26, 433–435 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chung, C-W., Wimperis, S.: Optimal detection of spin-3/2 biexponential relaxation using multiple-quantum filtration technique. J. Magn. Reson. 88, 440–447 (1990)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu, Atkinson, I.C., Claiborne, T.C., Damen, F.C., Thulborn K.R.: Quantitative sodium imaging with a flexible twisted projection pulse sequence aiming. Magn. Reson. Med. 63, 1583–1593 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ellegood, J., Hanstock, C.C., Beaulieu, C.: Trace Apparent Diffusion Coef.cients of Metabolites in Human Brain Using Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Magn. Reson. Med. 53, 1025–1032 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mlynárik, V., Gruber, S., Moser, E.: Proton T1 and T2 Relaxation Times of Human brain Metabolites NMR Biomed. 14, 325–331 (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cedric M. J. de Bazelaire, Duhamel, G.D., Rofsky, N.M., Alson, D.C.: MR imaging relaxation times of abdominal and pelvic tissues measured in vivo at 3.0 T: preliminary results1. Radiology 230, 652–659 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frank Tra¨ber, Lamerichs, R., Ju¨rgen Gieseke, Schild, H.H.: 1H metabolite relaxation times at 3.0 Tesla: measurements of T1 and T2 values in normal brain and determination of regional differences in transverse relaxation. J. Magn. Reson. Im. 19, 537–545 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ouwerkerk, R., Bleich, K.B., Gillen, J.S., Pomper, M.G., Bottomley, P.A.: Tissue sodium concentration in human brain tumors as measured with 23Na MR imaging. Radiology 227, 529–537 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Constantinides, C.D., Kraitchman, D.L., O’Brien, K.O., Gillen, B.J., Bottomley P.A.: Noninvasive quantification of total sodium concentrations in acute reperfused myocardial infarction using 23Na MRI. Magn. Reson. Med. 46, 1144–1151 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. M. Kaila
    • 1
  • Rakhi Kaila
    • 2
  1. 1.School of PhysicsUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations